Maritimes Crimes

Aim of MariTimesCrimes is to provide all information you need about maritime crimes and maritime issue. The blog focuses on all kind of aspect such as economical, environmental, and political. Besides recent news and investigation reports, you will find international treaties and sources you need to conduct your own analysis. And if you begin with the specific seaman language, our glossary will help you for sure.

Explosion on the  “Seama” Cargo Ship in the Black Sea
Another Brazilian “Tapouille” Intercepted in French Guiana
Australia Invests $1.5 Billion to Bolster Maritime Surveillance Amidst Indo-Pacific Tensions
Innovative Wind-Powered Shipping Aims to Cut Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Alarming Findings on Marine Sand Extraction
Kenya Signs a MoU to Improve Security in its Maritime Area
A sinking mysterious vessel refuses to get help in the Black Sea
Global Collaboration to Combat Container Pests and Safeguard Agriculture
Suez Canal Returns to Regular Shipping After Successful Resolution of Collision
Did a Chinese submarine crash in the Taiwan Strait?
Maritime traffic halted briefly in Turkey’s Dardanelles Strait
PHA Mistral resumes Corymbe operation in the Gulf of Guinea
Black Sea situation worsens : Russia-Ukraine clashes intensify
Oil Spill in the Strait of Gibraltar
Explosion at Turkish port of Kocaeli
A tug sank in the Suez Canal after colliding with a carrier
Cocaine discovered under the hull of a cargo ship
Papua New Guinea signed an agreement with the US Coast Guard
Seizure of Half a Tonne of Cocaine off Cape Verde
Fisheries agreement signed between Mauritania and Senegal
Long-range drone trial to combat IUU fishing in French Guiana
Maritime cooperation strengten between EU and the Philippines
Has Panama lost its position as the leading flag state ?
An ancient roman-era shipwreck found
Fremantle Highway caught fire off Netherlands
Shenghai 2 hijacked by pirates off Liberia
The looming collapse of the Gulf Stream and its consequences
The Armed Forces in the Antilles are fighting Organised Crime
Cocaine seized by Italian authorities
A new Secretary General for the IMO

In-Depth Articles

August 16, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsThe Suez and Panama Canals, engineering marvels of the modern world, have long served as vital arteries of global trade and commerce. However, the adverse effects of climate change are casting a shadow over their efficiency and economic viability. The twin challenges of low water levels and increasingly unpredictable weather patterns are impacting these vital waterways, causing restrictions on daily transits and significant financial losses. Low Water Levels: A Navigational Nightmare One of the most pressing consequences of climate change affecting the Suez and Panama Canals is the dwindling water levels. Rising temperatures lead to evaporation, reducing the volume of water available to maintain adequate depth for vessels. In the Suez Canal, situated in a region prone to water scarcity, the impacts are particularly stark. Reduced water levels make it challenging for large vessels to navigate safely through the canal, increasing the risk of grounding and accidents. Similarly, the Panama Canal faces the challenge of maintaining sufficient water levels to accommodate its lock-based system. As freshwater resources in the surrounding regions become scarcer due to changing precipitation patterns, ensuring a stable water supply becomes a critical concern. Lower water levels restrict the canal’s capacity to handle larger vessels, undermining its competitiveness as a global trade route. Restrictions on Daily Transits: A Sluggish Global Trade The combined effects of low water levels and unpredictable weather patterns have forced the Suez and Panama Canals to implement restrictions on daily transits, directly impacting global trade flows. In the Suez Canal, reduced water levels have led to narrower navigational channels, resulting in a decrease in the maximum allowable vessel draft. This restriction reduces the number of vessels that can pass through the canal each day, leading to delays in shipments and disruptions in supply chains. As a result, some estimates suggest that daily transits through the Suez Canal have been curtailed by as much as 20 percent, causing ripple effects throughout the global shipping industry. In the case of the Panama Canal, water scarcity-driven restrictions affect the canal’s lock operations. The canal’s locks rely on freshwater to maintain the necessary buoyancy and functionality. Decreased water availability has compelled authorities to limit the number and size of vessels passing through, thereby reducing the overall throughput of the canal. These limitations have far-reaching consequences for industries dependent on just-in-time supply chains, potentially leading to delays, increased costs, and inefficiencies. Financial Losses: Sinking Profits The economic impacts of climate-induced disruptions on the Suez and Panama Canals are undeniable. The reduction in daily transits directly translates into financial losses for canal operators. The Suez Canal, for instance, generates billions of dollars in revenue each year from toll fees paid by shipping companies. A 20 percent reduction in daily transits equates to a substantial decrease in toll revenue, threatening the canal’s financial stability and its ability to invest in maintenance and upgrades. The Panama Canal, too, faces economic strains due to lower throughput. The canal’s revenue largely stems from toll charges based on vessel size, type, and cargo. Decreased transits result in reduced toll collection, impacting the canal’s operational budget and potential expansion projects. Conclusion The impacts of climate change on the Suez and Panama Canals underscore the interconnectedness of global trade, infrastructure, and environmental sustainability. The challenges posed by low water levels and restricted daily transits not only disrupt supply chains but also amplify the economic vulnerabilities of canal-dependent economies. Urgent action is required to mitigate these impacts, including innovative water management strategies, investments in canal infrastructure, and international cooperation to combat climate change As the world grapples with the reality of a changing climate, it is imperative to recognize that the health and viability of these critical waterways are at stake. Addressing the challenges posed by climate change is not just about safeguarding the navigability of the Suez and Panama Canals; it’s about ensuring the resilience and adaptability of global trade systems in the face of an uncertain future. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
August 10, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsWhales are hunted for their meat, skin, blubber and oil. Whaling is regulated by the International Whaling Commission. Established in 1946, it is responsible for the conservation of whales. Today it also deals with bycatch and entanglement, ship strikes, marine noise and pollution. It also monitors the sustainability of whale watching. There are three types of whaling: commercial, aboriginal subsistence and scientific. However, it is still legal in three countries. Whale hunting, a long tradition Japan, a member of the International Whaling Commission, is one of them. It hunts Antarctic whales every year for scientific research. But the International Court of Justice (IJC) ruled in 2014 that it was not doing so for research purposes. The ICJ ordered Japan to stop hunting under its permit. The second is Norway. It is the number one whaling country for commercial reasons. It has twice withdrawn from the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Third time’s a charm, they finally accepted it with reservations. Whale hunting is a cultural tradition. It goes back to the Vikings in the 9th century. Today, Norway restricts hunting to the minke whale, which is not classified as an endangered species. An end to whaling ? The last is Iceland. The country left the International Whaling Commission in 1992 and has since resumed commercial whaling. However, following a report on animal welfare, Icelandic Food Minister Svandis Svavarsdottir suspended the whaling season until 31 August. The report indicates that 41 % of the whales targeted do not die immediately. They suffer after being harpooned. It can take up to two hours for them to die. Moreover, explosives could be used. This allows the whale to be killed more quickly byallowing it to bleed to death. The harpoon used to be hooked inside the whale. The whale would then pull the line to exhaustion, allowing the fishermen to kill it. The end of fin whale hunting is being supported by tourism. In fact, whale-watching tourism is on the rise. Income from tourism is greater than that from the sale and export of meat. The marine mammal also plays a key role in marine life. Their excrement stimulates the growth of plankton. This in turn can absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. Plankton is also an important food source for small marine animals and fish. Ending whaling means preserving an entire marine ecosystem. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
August 3, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsIn 2018, around 6.9 million tonnes of plastic pollution was discarded by coastal countries in West Africa. Most of these are single-use plastic containers for drinking water or sanitary purposes. In West Africa, the use of plastic products is increasing with urbanisation. The cost of marine pollution in West Africa is estimated at between $10,000 and $30,000 per tonne of plastic in the ocean. Furthermore, Plastic can persist for centuries, making it a major stress factor in marine ecosystems. Fishing, biodiversity, tourism and ecosystems are all affected. Plastic waste can affect fisheries by reducing fish yields and damaging fishing gear such as nets and boat propellers. Accordingly, it drives down market prices for products contaminated by plastic and associated chemicals. Plastic pollution of beaches and offshore waters could also lead to a reduction in tourist activity. Biodiversity is declining and slowly dying out. Leatherback turtles, which nest on beaches, are among the victims. They die from ingesting plastic, which they mistake for jellyfish. The initatives to fight agaisnt plastic pollution That is why a number of initiatives have been launched in Gabon to put an end to plastic pollution. In Libreville, people have been fined for littering. Public awareness needs to be raised and people made more responsible.. That’s an important part of the fight against pollution. Everyone has to play their part. For instance, the NGO Réseau gabonais pour l’environnement et le développement durable (RGEDD), in partnership with the Autorité nationale des parcs nationaux (ANPN) and with the support of elements of the French army in Gabon (EFG), cleaned up the Raponda Walker Arboretum. Due to the difficulty to access the beach, The French Fennec helicopter was used to evacuate the 5 x 100 kg bags of rubbish. Collecting waste is not enough. It has to be treated to improve waste collection and recycling. In Gabon, the Mindoubé landfill receives 700 tonnes of waste per day, or 80% of the country’s waste. As a result, the landfill has been saturated since 2014. To tackle this problem, France and Gabon signed an agreement at the One Forest Summit in March 2023 to clean up the landfill. Thus, this operation will put an end to the safety risks, toxic fumes and air pollution. It will also help develop the local economy, create jobs and train young people in recycling. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
July 31, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsIn our articles, we often talk about AIS and VMS for ship tracking. But what exactly are these devices? AIS, a safety device AIS stands for Automatic Identification System. Its purpose is to transmit a ship’s position to others vessels. It is a safety requirement created in 2002. AIS is mandatory on all vessels over 15 meters. IMO requires large ships to broadcast their position with AIS in order to avoid collisions. AIS transmits a range of information : position, vessel identity with MMSI, course and speed are all reported. Ground stations and satellites receive this information. This data is then made available to the public. AIS uses a higher transmission frequency. However, In some cases, the AIS may have to be deactivated for safety reasons. For example, in areas at high risk of maritime piracy, ships deactivate their AIS. This reduces the risk of piracy. VMS, a monitoring tool VMS is the acronym for Vessel Monitoring System. It is one of the four worldwide positional data systems to exist. Positional data are used to study fishing effort and its effects on marine habitats. It was created in 1997 by the European Union to monitor the position of fishing vessel. It is compulsory for fishing vessels over 12 meters in length. However, under the impetus of the FAO, the VMS was not content with being a European standard. It has become an international system. Unlike AIS, VMS cannot be tampered with. It is also more difficult to lose data, and is subject to strict confidentiality rules. AIS and VMS, why choose ? The combinaison of both could help prevent illegal activities into marine habitats. Although not the first use, AIS help locate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. For instance, the globalfishingwatch website turns “big data into actionable information”. It does this by combining publicly available AIS with information obtained from vessel monitoring systems available through partnerships with governments. Thus, impacted areas can be better monitored, and action taken at sea. Some fishermen prefer to remove it to escape surveillance. This delays rescue operations in the event of shipwrecks, fires or other incidents. Events whose severity could have been minimized if the AIS had been effective or the VMS present. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
July 20, 2023NewsAccording to a study of satellite images by the US Naval Institute, two dolphins have been spotted at the entrance to the port of Sebastopol. Naval News reports an increase in the number of dolphins pens spotted around the naval base and the Kremlin’s warships as Russia ramps up its defense in fear of losing more equipment and lives to Ukraine’s drones. Thus, media reports estimate that Russia has a group of six or seven dolphins to cover a wider area. They would have started the war with just three or four dolphins. Moscow was made nervous by a strike that triggered a major fuel tank fire at Sevastapol, which destroyed 10 tanks of oil, or 40,000 tons. They are probably deployed to protect warships of the Black Sea fleet from Ukrainian sabotage. In fact, it is not the first time they have been used. In 2018, they were deployed for several months at Russia’s Tartous naval base in the Syrian Mediterranean. We could assume they are the same animals today. They are reportedly mainly used to counter enemy divers, retrieve objects from the seabed and conduct intelligence operations. Russia’s use of marine mammals has its roots in a program launched in 2012 by the Ukrainian navy. It was taken over by Russia following the invasion of Crimea in 2014. Ukrainian sea lions have also been “transferred” as they are trained in the city of Sevastopol. As previously explain, the Russian fleet uses different types of marine animals, each prepared and adapted for a specific region. Beluga whales such as Hvaldimir and seals, both with heavy layers of fat for warmth, are better protected against the cold than the bottlenose dolphins used in the Black Sea. The genesis of dolphins training The training of marine mammals started during the arms race in the 1960s. The use of dolphins was pioneered by the US Navy which has a program in San Diego, established in 1959. Legend has it that the Soviets trained killer dolphins equipped with hypodermic needles loaded with carbon dioxide. They would train dolphins to become kamikaze. The animal would plant explosives on enemy ships. But controlling the troops isn’t always easy. In 2013, two-thirds of Russia’s military dolphins disappeared in the Black Sea. They were in search of love, with an military source saying at the time that they had “deserted a naval exercise and went on manoeuvres of an amorous kind. They swam away to look for mates.” It was discovered that bottlenose dolphins could transmit messages and identify naval threats. That’s why the U.S. Navy’s Marine Mammal Program began training them. In particular, they are trained to hunt underwater mines in the ocean. Nachtigall’s experiments in the mid-1990s with a resident bottlenose dolphin named BJ demonstrated this sensitive ability. Nachtigall asked BJ to distinguish between metal cylinders made of stainless steel, brass or aluminum. Despite burying the four-inch-long objects under two feet of mud, BJ passed with flying colors. Although Russia and the USA are pioneers in the training and use of marine mammals, other countries are benefiting from this experience. In 2000, four ex-Soviet dolphins were sold to Iran. The mammals were described as “mercenaries” by the press. Israel is also suspected of using porpoise for military purpose. However, the use of animals for military purposes raises many concerns and ethical questions. Many environmentalists argue that dolphins and other animals cannot comprehend the risks involved. And, unlike soldiers, they cannot stop being used. They don’t have the option of taking time on leave or resigning. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
July 10, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsAlthough most of our planet is covered in water, only three percent of it is freshwater, and only a third is available to man, the rest being frozen in glaciers or inaccessible deep underground. The ocean accounts for 95% of available water. But this is salt water. Desalinating this water could therefore be the solution to the problem of water scarcity… Water resources are threatened by unpredictable weather conditions. Heat waves are more frequent as temperatures rise. Population growth is increasing the need for water, while resources are dwindling. Desalination plant : a game changer If the Earth is called the blue planet, it’s because of the ocean. The ocean accounts for 95% of available water. But this is salt water. Desalinating this water could therefore be the solution to the problem of water scarcity… To achieve this, desalination plants are set up. Several techniques can be used. The first is thermal distillation. This produces steam by boiling seawater. This operation leaves salt and minerals behind, but the steam is collected. It is then condensed by a cooling procedure to produce pure water. For years, this was the main method, but a cheaper and easier-to-implement solution has now emerged. This is membrane filtration, also known as reserve osmosis. Seawater is sprayed at high pressure through a membrane. This separates the water from its various minerals and salts. Although this technique is less difficult, it requires a great deal of energy, and not just renewable energies. Only wealthy countries where water is scarce use this technique. Australia was the first country to adopt this process. The Millennium Drought, between 1997 and 2009, had serious consequences, and desalination plants were a great help. Spain now ranks fourth in the world for desalination capacity, accounting for around 5% of the global total, behind Saudi Arabia, the United States and the United Arab Emirates. However, many plants in the Middle East use older, fossil-fuel-powered thermal plants. As a result, desalination plants are currently responsible for the emission of 76 million tonnes of CO2 per year. As demand for desalination is set to grow, global desalination-related emissions could reach 400 million tonnes of CO2 per year by 2050. The issues raise Saltwater extraction in desalination plants can harm fish and other marine life if not carried out with care. Brine is the hyper-concentrated salty liquid that is removed from freshwater. For every 100 grams of brine, there are 70 grams of salt. This can be harmful to fish and marine life if not treated with care. If it’s simply pumped directly into the sea, this dense substance sinks to the bottom of the ocean and suffocates marine life. Brine is denser, sinking to the seabed and creating a stratification that asphyxiates bottom-dwelling species. Brine can contain toxic metals such as mercury, cobalt, copper, iron, zinc and nickel, as well as pesticides and acids that cause irrevocable changes to the environment. There are techniques for distributing it over a larger area in the sea, thus diluting its impact. Brine can contain toxic metals such as mercury, cobalt, copper, iron, zinc and and nickel, as well as pesticides and acids that cause irrevocable changes to the environment. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
July 7, 2023Illegal Exploitation Of Natural Ressources / NewsChinese trawlers are omnipresents off the West African coast. Numerous fishing vessels have been spotted plundering West African waters. Having exhausted the resources of its oceans, the Chinese fleet is now in the Atlantic Ocean. According to one study, in 60 years, more than 50% of the fishery resources in West African waters have been emptied by the Chinese fleet. West African waters under Chinese pressure West Africa is one of the world’s largest producers of fishmeal. A lot of these factories are located in Gambia. It includes Golden Lead, JXYG and Nessim, owned by Chinese companies. Take the “Golden Lead” factory, for example. This factory, part of the “Belt and Road” initiative, was installed in September 2016. Golden Lead was the first plant of this kind in Gambia. Chinese authorities promise that this factory will bring jobs. Thus, in exchange of their installation, they committed to help developing market and build new asphalt road. But the reality is slightly different. The factory used valuable fish, such as the bonga, to make fishmeal. Around a quarter of the world’s fish catch is processed into fishmeal. Then, to produce one kilo of fishmeal, over 5 kg of small pelagic fish are needed. One factory in Gambia consumes 7,500 tonnes of fish a year. It represents 40% of Gambia’s entire fish catch for a given year. Moreover, this fishmeal is used to feed farmed fish. These fishes are then sold to people in Asia and Africa, with a higher price than the initial cost of the bonga. Deterioration of life in coastal communities In addition to other issues, fishmeal manufacturing process causes chemical pollution. Arsenic has been found in Gambian waters, leading to environmental destruction. On May 22, 2017, the Bolong Fenyo lagoon was filled with dead fish and had taken on a dark red hue. The pollution incident in this wildlife reserve occurred almost a year after the opening of the Golden Lead. The following month, the National Environment Agency filed a complaint against Golden Lead in a court of first instance, alleging that the factory’s wastewater was the cause of the damage. But the firm paid an out-of-court settlement of 25 000$. This put the brakes on any attempt to legislate or supervise production. The plant installation did not live up to expectations. The site has not brought as many jobs to local communities as promised. Golden Lead works with Senegalese fishermen and their motorboats. Local Gambian fishermen can’t compete. The factory buys in bulk, paying $5 a basket. That’s three times less than what it’s worth on local markets. Contrary to what was promised, the installation of the factory has not improved the living conditions of local communities. Instead, the local people have had to adapt, and have lost out on quality of life. The Chinese fleet, a false solution Following their decreased of life quality, fishing communities are forced to take drastic measures to survive. Some choose to emigrate across the Mediterranean. Others fishermen enlist aboard Chinese fleet vessels. Desperate, they are a trained workforce ready to work for low wages in harsh conditions. According to Greenpeace, each fisherman receives 173 dollars at the end of each month. As one survey reports, the boats are overcrowded. Accordingly, crew members sleep in small rooms, surrounded by filth. The majority of industrial trawlers operating in Gambia’s waters are Chinese-owned. They are operating under a “flag of convenience”. Although the vessels do not belong to the Chinese fleet, the revenues generated will be for China. These vessels have fishing licenses. Some are probably obtained scrupulously, playing on relationships with the authorities. But there is another side to the phenomenon. West Africa is a victim of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing by 12 000 vessels of the Chinese fleet. Vessels must receive a subsidy from the authorities to buy fuel and fishing licenses. According to estimates, fuel for the fleet will cost a total of 280 million dollars a year. A trifle for the Chinese government, an astronomical sum for an ordinary fisherman. A vicious circle for the local communities on West African waters To conclude, whatever solution is chosen, it will lead to a vicious circle. Local fishermen who can no longer make a living from artisanal fishing will embark on Chinese vessels. These Chinese vessels will pay them low wages and over-fish in their waters. At last, all this to supply fishmeal factories with astronomical quantities of fish they consume. The disappearance of small-scale fishing in favor of industrial fishing will lead to the depletion of resources at an accelerated rate. In the past, bonga was abundant and sold at low prices. Today, the over-consumption of this species by fishmeal factories led to a rare and expensive resource. Consequently, many people can no longer afford this vital source of protein. Thus, society will be impoverished, and famine and deprivation will set in. This will lead to the disappearance of the last artisanal fishermen and the collapse of the local economy based on small-scale fishing. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 23, 2023NewsThe Gulf of Guinea is criss-crossed by numerous shipping lanes and is not short of security challenges.Angola is mobilised to control its maritime space and asserts its maritime sovereignty in the region. Angola invests in its maritime sovereignty The country’s investment has been confirmed with the signing of a “major milestone contract” worth €1 billion for the construction of a fleet of 71 corvettes.The corvettes are Combattante BR71 MKIIs developed by Cherbourg shipyard CMN. These ships will be used to monitor and secure the country’s coastline. Angola is also looking to bolster its space fleet with a latest-generation Earth observation satellite. Sovereign access to satellite imagery will make a significant contribution to the mapping of natural resources and maritime surveillance, including fisheries. Angola, a major player in maritime security in the region Angola’s maritime security is coordinated by the Angolan Navy’s Maritime Operations Centre (MOC). The MOC Angola is an operational body, responsible for the constant surveillance of all Angolan maritime spaces against violations of national sovereignty, customs and fishing offences, as well as the interconnection between the different sectors of maritime interest. From 5 to 9 June 2023, the Angolan Navy took part in the 2023 edition of the MEGALOPS – AFRICAN NEMO 23.3. This maritime security exercise is organised in partnership with the French Elements of Gabon (EFG) and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Angola and three other Central African countries, as well as the maritime security chain organisations in the area, were involved in the exercise conducted as part of Operation CORYMBE. The exercise strengthened cooperation and coordination between the various participants. By combining exercises at sea and maritime surveillance missions, Angola improves its interoperability for future joint patrols. Angola and France strengthen their cooperation The French Navy’s PHM Commandant Birot also took part in the maritime security exercise AFRICAN NEMO 23.3. During this exercise, the patrol reported a large number of fishermen suspected of illegal fishing. The information reported by the French patrol boat to the coastal states, via the Yaoundé “Yaris” architecture exchange network, enabled them to analyse the techniques and identities of the fishermen operating in their waters. Taking advantage of the MHP’s presence in the area, Angola and France strengthened their cooperation, with a joint exercise involving crews from both countries. During its stopover in the port of Luanda, life-saving equipment was donated to the Small-scale, semi-industrial and industrial fishing association, including torches, lifejackets, lifebuoys and bugles, courtesy of the French Navy’s Atlantic Coast Command (Ceclant). Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 22, 2023NewsTo stimulate economic development in the Arctic region, Russia seeks to develop northern route. As a result, the port of Tiski is opening up. Located in the Sakha or Yakutia region, the port now expects to welcome foreign vessels. Russia’s ambition is to create a deep-water port hub. It would handle 30 million tonnes of cargo a year. Developing a northern route, a challenge for Russia Announced on June 6, the opening of the harbour aims to strenghten Moscow’s presence in the Arctic. This would enable it to exploit the untapped potential of the Northern Sea Route. More generally, the Russian authorities explained their development plan for the North Sea. An investment of 22,8 billion of euros will be made over a 13-year period. The majority of cargoes transported are liquefied natural gas, coal and iron ore. With the objective of development, northern roads are being opened up to freight transport. In doing so, they are demonstrating their commitment to expanding international cooperation. Russia would then attract foreign investments, mostly to stimulate trade with African and Asian partners. With Europe and much of the West cutting economic and diplomatic ties in the wake of the invasion of Ukraine, Russian president, Vladimir Putin, has been putting much emphasis on creating new links to clients. To meet their expectations, 5 satellites have been launched into orbit. Their mission is to monitor weather conditions in the Arctic. This would facilitate navigation in these waters. Environmental issues, a forgotten problem But new naval routes in the Arctic is not all good news. It will increase the use of fossil fuels in the region. Accordingly, the impact on the climate will be exacerbate. Greenhouse gas and black carbon emissions from ships will contribute to global warming. More shipping through the Arctic water will increase the risks of environmental disasters such as shipwrecks, oil spills and so on. In addition, passage through ice will reduce the albedo effect. The albedo effect is the ability of a surface to reflect sunlight. Light-colored surfaces (high albedo) reflect more sunlight than dark-colored surfaces (low albedo). Thus, as sea ice disappears, the ocean surface, darker, will absorbs more solar radiations. In consequences, it will accelerate the warming process of water. As the region warms and the sea ice melts, methane reserves in frozen hydrates on the sea bed and in permafrost will be destabilized. They could then release powerful greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Climate change raise a number of questions. Is the ice included in the continental shelf ? As the ice melts, will territorial claims be limited ? Are international laws prepared for the political changes that climate change will bring ? Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 15, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsDuring the 20th century, 2 million dolphins lived in the Black Sea. They were threatened by fishing, pollution and bycatch but they remained numerous. However, in 2020, the dolphin population has collapsed to 250 000 individuals. The population has been divided by 20 since the Russian invasion. Thousand of Black Sea Dolphins have been killed. By May 2022, 1500 dead dolphins had been reported on shore. Moreover, only a small number of the dead cetaceans washes ashore. The remaining carcasses sink to the bottom of the water. All Black Sea coastal states, such as Ukraine and Turkey, have noticed dead dolphins on their beaches. Research has determined that the 2500 documented strandings are just the tip of the iceberg. It is estimated that between 37,500 and 48,000 animals died in the space of just three months of war. How is the war in Ukraine affecting marine animals? Radioactive and chemical pollution caused by missiles is threatening Black Sea wildlife . However the effects will probably not be visible until later. As always in times of war, there are several versions of events. According to Russian scientists, the morbillivirus is to blame. This virus is a common killer of the species. But the images and dates converge on an explanation that focuses more on the consequences of conflict than disease. Dolphins die from injuries caused by explosions. They suffer burns or decompression sickness after escaping the blast. Dolphins also suffer of acoustic trauma. Sonar technologies affect a part of the dolphin’s brain called the melon. This organ plays a major role in communication and echolocation. Military sonars destroy the dolphins’ inner ear and blind them. As a result, they are unable to navigate and hunt. This leads to the disappearance of their very thin layer of blubber. Weakened, they die of starvation, hypothermia, or of disease due to a weakened immune system. Their sonar communication system, is both a weak point and a much-appreciated tool. In fact, combined with their deep-diving capabilities, this makes dolphins effective underwater detectors. They are said to be more effective than any technological device. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 14, 2023NewsNoise is part of the sea. Some of it is natural, like the sound of waves, rain, seismic activity or simply marine life. But more recently, anthropogenic noise is making itself heard. The development of industrial activities in the wake of globalization has given rise to a new form of pollution: noise pollution. Where does noise pollution come from ? Man-made noise comes from our ever-expanding ports. Offshore wind farms are another source of noise pollution. When the propeller stirs up the water, the “pressure is extremely low in some places”, causing the water to boil and form “steam bubbles that grow, shrink and burst”. This phenomenon creates a deafening din at the bottom of the sea. This noise is added to what is coming from the various submarine cables, pipe-laying and mining operations. Not to mention the air guns used for seismic exploration. Most anthropogenic noise comes from navigation and communication using sonars and imaging echo sounders. Marine mammals hear sounds in the approximate range of 10 to 200 Hz. Fish hearing begins at 50 Hz and extends to 500 – 1000 Hz. The relatively low frequencies used by humans interfere with some of the frequencies used by fish. or example, the noise produced by ships tend to be below 2 kHz. In comparison, blue whales produce vocalizations at frequencies below 100Hz. This means that their calls can be lost in the background noise produced by ships. We can therefore deduce that the noise generated by human activity will clash with and disrupt the generation and reception of sound by marine organisms. What are the consequences ? The consequences of noise pollution depend on a number of factors. Each specie reacts differently to noise. Marine animals may collaps to the bottom of the sea, becoming motionless. Some may increase their swimming speed, or change direction or depth in the water column. It could lead to death by hemorrhage in their brain and heart. It would be a result of decompression sickness following their altered dive pattern. They act in haste, under the effect of panic, regardless of the aftermath. Changes in school behavior also differ, ranging from closer aggregation to poorer coordination, resulting in loss of school structure or even complete dispersion. Seismic airguns, used for seabed mapping, take their toll. The sound produced by a seismic airgun can cause permanent hearing loss, tissue damage and even death. Powerful naval sonar could induce mass stranding. The example of more than 40 mass strandings of Cuvier’s beaked whale have been reported. In short, a wide variety of marine animals relies on waves to find food, mate or simply navigate their way through the ocean. Noise pollution disrupts their habits, potentially endangering their health. What could be done ? There’s no miracle solution for avoiding noise pollution. It just has to be limited. To achieve this, a number of techniques and devices have already been put in place. Reducing shipping traffic or, failing that, the speed of traffic, would already bring about a significant reduction in noise. Replacing seismic air cannons would also be a step forward. Instead of using seismic air cannons, which can cause permanent hearing loss and tissue damage, we could prefer the use of “marine vibroseis”. This device mimics the sound of waves by using vibrations rather than an explosion. This clearly limits the impact on marine life. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 12, 2023Human-Trafficking / NewsThe Swimmers follows the story of the Mardini Sisters. They lived in Syria and were trained by their father to become Olympics’ swimmers. Everything was going well until the war broke out. Sara, the eldest, played by actress Manal Issa, convinced her parents to let her go to Europe with her younger sister Yusra, interpreted by Nathalie Issa. The beginning of their journey Their journey allows the viewer somehow to understand why migrant would choose to cross the sea despite the dangers. The Mardini Sisters have followed the same path as more than 3.6 million Syrian refugees. Like them, they hoped to reach the Greek islands across from Turkey. The sisters, short of money, decided to cross the Aegean Sea with a group of refugees. They were placed on a overcrowded raft. Important detail: many of the actors portraying migrants have been migrants themselves. So filming the crossing scene was loaded with meaning. Some took their children to shoot the scene with them. Meant for 7 people, they were 18 migrants on board. In the movie, we see migrants with life-jackets. It is not always the case. Material : the real hazard According to the UNHCR, in 2016, 5,096 people disappeared or died in the Mediterranean Sea. Given these figures, the absence of life jackets may raise questions.Their absence can be explained by several reasons. Not everyone can afford one. According to InfoMigrants, a lifejacket can cost from 50 to 400 euros. Even if they do buy one, it may be defective. Traffickers can confiscate it because it takes up space. To make trips profitable, they need to fill the raft. Moreover, the bright orange of the jackets can attract the attention of coastguards. However, crossing conditions are complicated enough to require the use of a life jacket as is shown in the film. The overcrowding and poor quality of the boat put the crossing in danger. After an engine problem and an unusable emergency phone, they were left at sea. Intrepid or desperate, the sisters throw themselves into the water. Excellent swimmers, they pulled the raft. What was supposed to be a 45 minute boat ride become a feat of more than 3 hours of swimming. They reached the island of Lesbos, in Greece, exhausted. Finally, they could resume their travel to Germany. Viewers could share their concerns : sadness of leaving their native country behind, anxiety of being separated from their family, fear of not succeeding or being sent back. Once they arrived at destination, they completed administrative paperwork and became asylum seekers. An asylum seeker is a person who has left his/her country and is seeking protection from persecution and serious human rights violations in another country, but who hasn’t yet been legally recognized as a refugee and is waiting to receive a decision on their asylum claim. When the dream comes true The sisters, determined to become Olympic swimmers, joined a a local Berlin swimming club. The youngest, Yusra, tried out for the German Olympic swimming team, but she didn’t make the cut. Resolving not to give up on her dream of being an Olympic athlete, she qualified for the refugee team. According to the Refugee Convention of 1951, a refugee is a person who had fled their own country. They did it because of the risk of serious violations and persecution. The risks were so great that they felt they had no choice. At the end, Yusra competed in the Olympic Games of Rio in 2016 and once again in the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 5, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsAre you familiar with artificial reefs ? Artificial reefs are structures intentionally placed on the seabed. They are built from natural or artificial materials. They are designed to protect, enhance or restore components of marine ecosystems. Reefs improve organic plant production and animal nutrition by providing shelter and protection from predators. The beginning of the food chain is thus protected. What are artificial reefs made of ? They mimic natural reef system. They are made of concrete, whose composition is close to coral. Concrete offers a number of advantages. The material is strong, heavy, readily available and, above all, affordable. Its malleability means it can be shaped to suit a variety of habitats. Thus, holes and cavities can be included in structures to provide shelter. Over time, the concrete will be cover with algae and species of invertebrates, sponges and plankton. What are the goals ? We can identify three objectives for artificial reefs. First of all, the economic goal. It aims to develop biodiversity and biomass. The increase in marine wealth will lead to its exploitation for fishing. Secondly, environmental protection. The aim is to reduce the damage caused by trawling. In Morocco, reefs have been installed to combat illegal fishing. Above all, they prevent violations of maritime laws. They target the use of trawler nets in shallow waters. Finally, the recreational reefs. These are installed to attract divers. Sometimes, shipwrecks are deliberately sunk to create artificial reefs. A solution to reinforce, not replace However, fraud has occurred. Some companies use them to evade taxes. As a result, the proposed solutions are mainly a means of getting rid of their waste. Some of the proposed solutions are even polluting. Whether tires, PVC or plastic, waste does not constitute an effective artificial reef. Furthermore, this answer is only practical with quality water. It can only be applied if there is still hope of limiting the consequences of pollution and illegal fishing. It cannot create biodiversity, only enhance it. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
May 30, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsSea piracy has long been a global concern, posing a significant threat to maritime trade, security, and human lives. Over the years, naval powers and the international community have primarily focused on maritime strategies to combat piracy. However, it is essential to reverse this perspective and explore how addressing the land-based roots of piracy can contribute to a more comprehensive and effective solution. This article delves into the efforts made by maritime powers and the international community, analyzes the underlying land-based factors contributing to piracy in Somalia and Indonesia, and discusses long-term solutions that integrate both maritime and land approaches to eradicate piracy. Addressing Sea Piracy – Maritime Powers and International Initiatives Naval powers and international organizations have implemented various initiatives to combat sea piracy. Combined Task Force 151 (CTF 151) is one of the four Combined Maritime Force. Created in accordance with the United Nations Security Council Resolutions, it aims to suppress piracy outside the territorial waters of coastal States. They work in cooperation with the European Union Naval Force (EU NAVFOR). The collaboration target other maritime issues such as smuggling of goods and illicit products, human trafficking and IUU fishing. They are other operations: the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP) and the Malacca Strait Sea Patrol are both some prominent examples. These initiatives have aimed to enhance maritime security, conduct patrols, and coordinate responses to piracy incidents. However, their focus has predominantly been on the maritime domain, which leaves room for exploring complementary land-based approaches. The Land Roots of Somali and Indonesian Piracy Understanding the land-based factors contributing to piracy is crucial for developing effective solutions. Prior to 1991, piracy was not a major threat in the Horn of Africa. In Somalia, the drought push nomad communities to the littoral. They then relied on fisheries to survive. However, the Civil War pushed the government interest away from the sea. Fishermen were left on their own against foreign countries greed. Indeed, new players came to fish in the waters, depriving the locals of resources. Thus, declining fish stocks in the High Risk Areas (HRA) exacerbate socio-economic issues. Communities were forced to turn to piracy as a means of survival. The lack of infrastructure, isolated fishing villages and uninhabited islands are ideal for pirate hideouts. Stabilizing the state, reconnecting pirate hideouts to administrative and political hubs, and addressing socio-economic challenges are crucial steps in combating piracy in Somalia. Similarly, Indonesia faces its own set of challenges. Remote islands, weak governance, and limited law enforcement presence provide a conducive environment for piracy. The archipelagic nature of Indonesia poses difficulties in patrolling and securing vast maritime areas effectively. To combat piracy in Indonesia, efforts should focus on controlling criminal flows, improving infrastructure, connectivity, and strengthening governance in isolated regions. Failed-states or, at least, fragile ones make propitious environment for maritime piracy to thrive. It creates an area without governmental monitoring and harsh living conditions. Hardskills are transferable to illegal activities. Small-scale fishermen have seafaring abilities and are familiar with the waters. Futhermore, the pay-check, between 2 and 5 times their former wages, is attractive. Abandoned by the state authorities, joining pirates gang could be a solution to fight foreign industrial and illegal fishing in their waters while earning a living. Long-Term Solutions : Integrating Land and Maritime Approaches To eradicate piracy within the Internationally Recommended Transit Corridor (IRTC) and particularly around chokepoints, a comprehensive approach that addresses both maritime and land factors is essential. Long-term solutions should involve the enhancing of maritime security. States should continue to realize naval patrols. There is a need of a collaboration between international naval forces, coast guards, and local law enforcement agencies. They could deter and provide a rapid response to piracy incidents. International cooperation have to go through sharing intelligence, information and best practices. Countries and regional organizations could then improve their practices and adopt a collective response against piracy. The establishment of an intelligence exchange group can facilitate timely information sharing and enhance coordination between stakeholders. Initiatives as the Djibouti Code of Conduct and the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP), can foster collaboration among states and contribute to effective anti-piracy efforts. But, as our article demonstrates, land-based measures have to be strengthened. Governments must invest in infrastructure development, connectivity, and social welfare programs to address the socio-economic issues that fuel piracy. This includes improving education, healthcare, job opportunities, and sustainable livelihoods in affected coastal areas. By helping to create a solid legal framework, improving law enforcement capabilities and strengthening governance structures, the long-term stability of affected countries will improve. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
May 19, 2023NewsJapan has a long history of naval warfare. Its technological innovations, such as the iron-hulled warships Atakebune created in 1576, and its relentless fight against pirates allowed the Japanese Imperial Navy to become a formidable naval power in Asia. The sakoku, a policy of seclusion, led Japan to an international isolation of two centuries. This isolation ended with the Kanagawa Convention of 1854 and the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce of 1858. The need to develop a strong naval force was accentuated in 1868 when a revolution was instigated by Navy Admiral Enomoto Takeaki and international assistance was required. A necessary realization that led to the expansion of the Imperial Japanese Navy under the influence of the United Kingdom and French navies. As the 20th century began, the Imperial Japanese Navy would became a significant part of Japan’s history. During the first Sino-Japanese War, Japan relied on its naval forces in order to maintain control of the seas. Then, they could apply pressure against China. Japan was forced to renounce seized Chinese territory during the Triple Intervention. Thereby, the naval forces of Japan quickly realized that they would need to continue building power. The Japanese naval forces became the fourth world power. They formed an alliance with Britain to protect their interests in Asia. Through this alliance, the Imperial Japanese Navy played a major role in the First World War Entente. During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Navy realized their navy was smaller than the navy of the United States. Therefore they decided to rely on brutal naval strategy and careful alliances in order to overcome the larger power. The country made several fatal mistakes in their naval strategy lack of intelligence agents and disinterest in antisubmarine warfare. The Imperial Japanese Navy was quickly overcome by its shortage of information and naval support. As a result of Japan’s defeat in World War II, the Japanese Imperial Navy was quickly dissolved. The occupying United States forces permitted Japan to establish new self-defense forces under Article 9 of the new constitution of Japan. Thus was born the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force. How does the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force fight Maritime Crime Even today, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force plays a major role in reducing maritime crime. It operates mainly in the Southeast Asian and at the Pacific Ocean’s broader. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force is frequently called upon by the United Nations. It has served global interests through participating in the Operation Enduring Freedom to escort allied sea vessels and by participating in peacekeeping missions. The Operation Gulf Dawn, which was aimed at clearing underwater mines laid by Saddam Hussein’s forces, was one such mission. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force has also maintained active engagement against North Korea. This includes developing ship-based anti-ballistic missile systems and repelling North Korean spy ships. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force remains actively involved in anti-piracy operations, and has used its military ships to escort allied sea vessels and conduct counterpiracy measures against pirates off Somalia’s coast as reported in 2020. Since 2009, Japan deploys destroyers and patrol aircraft to escort trade ships and monitor the Gulf of Aden. The Japanese Maritime Self-Defense is involved in the Combined Task Force 151, and took its command plural times since 2013. Their commitment to fighting back against illegal fishing and supporting a healthy marine biodiversity has been demonstrated as recently as 2020 with the passage of new legislation against the illegal import of unregulated seafood. The illicit smuggling of drugs and human trafficking have also been a major focus of the JMSDF, as the naval branch continues to collaborate with the U.S. Navy on countermeasures. While the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force has proven itself to be a formidable naval power, it is likely that they will continue to face significant challenges in handling North Korea, China, and the broader affairs of maritime law in the Pacific Ocean. Future of the JMSDF The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force only continues to grow more formidable with each passing year. It is known as one of the most powerful navies in the world, and is widely lauded for its involvement in protecting the interests of the United Nations and its international allies. In many ways, the JMSDF appears to have a bright future. Japan continues to invest in expanding its naval strategy and forces, and their commitment to protecting the interests of Japanese citizens and their marine ecology demonstrates their forward-thinking approach. Unfortunately, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force faces many future challenges. Aside from the demanding affairs of combating piracy, illegal fishing, drug smuggling, and human trafficking, the JMSDF will also need to remain powerful enough to protect Japan from the mounting pressures from North Korea and China. Japan is expected to host the G7 in 2023 in the city of Hiroshima from May 19 to 21. This summit could be an opportunity to discuss the threats to global security in the region. Chinese pressure weighs on the Indo-Pacific area. The Communist Republic looms over Japanese maritime territory. The Shenkaku Islands, also known as the Diaoyu Islands, are claimed by both China and Japan. The issue is a source of tension and in March Japanese troops were placed on the island. Chinese coastguards were intercepted in Japanese territorial waters. These unauthorized maritime incursions are a constant threat to Japan’s maritime sovereignty. While it seems like the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force is stepping up to the challenge, only time will tell if their efforts were sufficient. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
May 10, 2023NewsSince the establishment of the Philippines itself, naval strategy has played a major role in the development of this southeast Asian country. Their naval forces continued to develop in order to combat the colonial powers of Spain and the United States. In the modern era, the Philippine Navy has quickly had to adapt in order to fight complex international issues like piracy and illegal fishing with the help of alliances and international collaborations. With time, it’s expected that the Philippine Navy will need to adapt and adopt ecology preservation into its broader body of naval strategies in order to protect the interests of Filipinos. History of the Philippine Navy The history of the Philippine Navy dates back thousands of years. Early records from Spaniard sailors suggest that Visayan Filipinos (also known as Pintados) were known as especially fierce amphibious combatants, as they used warships called Kora-Koras to fend off Spanish invaders. The Kora-Koras were highly advanced ships that gave the Visayans a clear advantage in their naval strategy, as they could reach speeds of up to 15 knots — Spanish galleons could only reach 6 knots — and could carry over 200 warriors and 6 cannons. Due to their prowess in marine combat, Filipinos were able to effectively fight off invading Spaniards and to lead fierce attacks against established Spanish forts. As the decades passed, marine combat continued to be one of the most effective methods through which the Philippines were protected against invaders. During the 1896 revolution against the Spaniards, El Presidente Emilio Aguinaldo established the Revolutionary Navy in order to fight against the Spaniards and reclaim territory within the Philippines. Just 2 years after the Revolutionary Navy was established, sailors led by the Navy’s Admiral Vicente Catalan were successful in seizing Subic Bay. Several naval bases were quickly established across the Philippines. As the United States grew interested in seizing territory within the Philippines, however, the Philippine Navy began to face a new and unprecedented challenge. The Philippine Navy was unable to win against the stronger American forces. As a result, the Philippines entered an American colonial era. This led to many significant developments within the Philippine Navy. The occupying Americans quickly began to employ Filipino sailors in their new Bureau of the Coast Guard and Transportation. Additionally, they reopened the former colonial Spanish Escuela Nautica de Manila as the Philippine Nautical School, introducing many of the methods and teachings they used in the United States Naval Academy. As Filipinos enlisted in the U.S. Navy, they quickly became familiar with foreign naval strategies and were able to combine them with their own lived experiences. Following the end of World War II and the liberation of the Philippines in 1945, the Philippine Navy was reestablished as a major arm of the country’s combat forces as the Philippine Naval Patrol. It was later renamed the Philippine Navy. The Philippine Navy quickly became one of the most formidable naval forces in southeast Asia. As other southeast Asian countries gained independence, the Philippine Navy was a significant force in maintaining stability and helping countries establish basic naval forces. This era of power ended in 1992, when the United States withdrew from its naval bases in the Philippines. Since then, the Philippine Navy has slowly regrown in order to fill the vacuum left behind and regain power as a powerful defensive naval force within the region. How does the Philippine Navy fight maritime crimes? To the modern day, the Philippine Navy relies on international collaboration and significant efforts in marine warfare in order to combat issues like piracy. Like many other naval forces in southeast Asia, the Philippine Navy regularly partners with the U.S. Navy in order to strengthen maritime security and address concerns regarding piracy, human trafficking, illegal fishing, and drug smuggling. Due to their participation in international collaboration schemes like the Trilateral Cooperation Agreement (TCA), the Philippine Navy has observed notable decreases in the occurrence of crimes like piracy in nearby marine territories. The Philippine Navy maintains a multifaceted approach to combating maritime crime. They are frequently responsible for significant crime busts, such as the arrest of 34 illegal fishermen near the Malampaya gas platform in 2018, and maintain a strong commitment to protecting the interests of Philippine citizens and their marine ecology. The Philippine Navy also remains involved in significant drug smuggling busts, such as the interception of five boats carrying smuggled cigarettes in November 2022. The Philippine Center for International Crime is another significant driving force in the Philippine Navy’s fight against overseas crime, as the organization continues to be involved in incidents like the interception of a human trafficking boat carrying over 100 victims in 2019. As the Philippine Navy continues to work to protect the interest of the country and its citizens, they will need to continue with stringent work to maintain and improve stability in the waters of southeast Asia. Piracy, illegal fishing, drug smuggling, and human trafficking all continue to represent significant threats to the continued operations of the Philippine Navy. If they hope to eliminate the issues entirely, they will need to address the governmental corruption, international conflict, and socio economic strife at the heart of many maritime crimes. Future of the Philippine Navy The future of the Philippine Navy appears to be bright. The Philippines continues to establish new organizations to address and combat complex components of the marine crimes that trouble the country. In 2015, the National Coast Watch Center (NCWC) was established in order to improve the maritime governance and naval strategy of the Philippines. Other agencies, such as the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) and Philippine National Police-Maritime Group, will be essential in providing the support necessary for the continued fight against maritime crime. International collaboration through alliances with significant naval powers like the United States will likely be another focus of the Philippines Navy. Additionally, it’s expected that protecting the country’s marine resources will prove to be a major component of the future naval strategy of the Philippine Navy. The rising population within the Philippines, combined with the ecological issues of groundwater depletion, deforestation, and overfishing, will likely lead to ecology protections becoming a priority. Just as the Philippine Navy has adapted to protect the interests of the country before, it is likely that its forces will continue to adapt to the country’s future needs. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
May 5, 2023Miscellaneous / NewsThe North Sea is a strategic place, especially for its richness. The richness of its fishy waters, but also for the richness of its seabed with the submarine cables. There are many submarine cables in the North Sea region and many Western countries depend on them. Incidents already happened. They have highlighted the fragility of the undersea infrastructures and the energy dependence has been emphasized. Although damage to submarine cables are common, the hypothesis of sabotage often hangs over the incident. Several suspicious Russian civilian ships have been spotted in the North Sea and monitored by various European intelligence agencies. To address the issue of energy dependence and foreign threats, European leaders, led by France and Germany, have come together to find an answer. National authorities have a responsibility to ensure that cable routes are sufficiently redundant and diverse to ensure overall resilience. The hazards threatening the submarine cables in the North Sea There are many submarine cables in the North Sea region and many Western countries depend on them. Cutting them would limit internet connectivity, especially across the Atlantic. The energy market could suffer significant damage if undersea power cables are sabotaged or damaged. One option might also be to harm communications or take down countries’ power systems to cause chaos. Apart from the material risks, there are other threats looming over the submarine cables. Foreign countries could tapped its to record, copy and steal data. They could therefore be used for espionage purposes. There are three ways to spy on undersea cables : by placing backdoors during the cable manufacturing process, targeting onshore landing stations and facilities connecting cables to terrestrial networks, or tapping cables at sea. The last option is more difficult but less traceable and one of the most effective. Incidents on submarine cables have already occurred recently An incident already happened in the South of Svalbard last year. On January 2022, the Svalbard Undersea Cable System was cut. It was a twin submarine fiberoptic communication cable connecting Longyearbyen with Andøya north of Harstad in northern Norway. The damage let the Faroe and Shetlands Islands without internet access. The incident happened a month after the sabotage of the Nord Stream 1 and 2 pipeline. The sabotage of the Nord Stream pipeline was a trigger for the Western public. The weakness of the undersea infrastructure has been highlighted and energy dependence has been emphasized. As the Belgian Prime Minister Alexander De Croo said “The offshore windmills, but also the cables and the pipes on the ground, are prone to sabotage or espionage,”. The Ukrainian War draws attention to the European dependence on Russian energy. Although damage to submarine cables are common, the hypothesis of sabotage often hangs over the incident. The Shadow War, the threat of Russian spy ships Several Russian civilian ships have been spotted in the North Sea and monitored by various European intelligence agencies. They are disguised as research vessels or fishing trawlers. These ships are sailing on maritime routes near gas or oil fields, near wind farms and power plants, as well as in the vicinity of military training areas – including during NATO training exercises. The Admiral Vladimirsky would be one of them. Officially dispatched for oceanographic research, the reality might be quite different as revealed by the documentary “The Shadow War” produced by public broadcasters from Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway. The Admiral Vladimirsky is shown conducting a mapping of the seabed in the international waters of the North Sea. The ship is of particular concern for her interest and proximity to western wind farms. Legally, nothing prohibits Russia from making these observations. The concern lies mainly in the use that could be made of the collected information. Some see behind this mapping preparations for a possible war between NATO and Russia. Moscow would identify the vulnerabilities of energy infrastructures for sabotaging purposes. The response to the challenges raised by submarine cables To address this problem of energy dependence, European leaders, led by France and Germany, have come together to find an answer. Renewable energies, more specifically wind turbines, could meet the challenges of security and sustainability. Cleaner than fossil fuels and more difficult to sabotage than pipelines, wind turbines seem to be, indeed, the answer to European concerns. They covet to produce around 300GW between now and 2050. Protecting Europe’s seabed infrastructure is a current concern. In the past, being underwater was a protection in itself. Today, with technological advances, the risks are greater. Threats can now be hybrid: physical or cyber and the stakes are high. Cables are subject to cyberattacks that can cause malfunctions or hardware incidents. Furthermore, whether it is a ship’s anchor or intentional sabotage, the risks are numerous. Europe relies above all on its ability to react in the event of sabotage. Rapid repair limits the consequences of a cable rupture and the paralysis of companies and the continent. The resilience of the Old Continent, a must have The acquisition of drones and underwater robots would allow to Europe to acquire strategic autonomy. Whether to act, protect or repair, having access to the seabed up to 6,000 meters deep is a goal. With more than 1.3 million kilometers, submarine cables invisible but essential elements of Western life. Submarine cables, as telecommunication and energy infrastructures, are part of the vital systems on which Western society depends. According to UNODC, more than $10,000 billion in financial transactions transit daily through undersea cables. The creation of an international authority to protect the submarine cables The International Cable Protection Committee was created in 1958 “to improve the security of undersea cables by providing a forum in which relevant technical, legal and environmental information can be exchanged.” the ICPC is for now only an industry forum for cable owners and some governments. The more allied governments join the institution, the more legitimacy it gains. Even if submarine cables are private property, governments still have the duty to monitor them. National authorities also have a responsibility to ensure that cable routes are sufficiently redundant and diverse. They must ensure overall resilience and avoid security breaches. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
April 27, 2023NewsThe Royal Thai Navy has served to protect the interests of Thai citizens for over 100 years. Despite how recent the naval branch of their country’s military is, Thailand has a surprisingly long history of combat and stabilization through naval warfare. In the modern day, the Royal Thai Navy commits itself to fighting maritime crimes like human trafficking and piracy through aggressive naval enforcement. This strategy has persisted and helped to stabilize the region since their navy was established. While combat remains the most notable arm of the Royal Thai Navy, the branch has proved itself to be surprisingly future-minded through its numerous international collaborations and future-minded focus on the preservation of Thailand’s marine ecology. History of the Royal Thai Navy While the Royal Thai Navy was established in 1906, Thailand has a long history of naval warfare. In fact, Thailand has used warships and a strong naval force to protect and hold control of the Chao Phraya River for hundreds of years. Evidence also suggests that Thailand possessed a formidable naval presence long before the Royal Thai Navy was established. One of the most notable incidents occurred in 1769, when King Taksin commanded over 15,000 troops, 200 warships, and 150 marine vessels to seize Nakhon Si Thammarat during his conquest to reunify Siam. The development of the Royal Thai Navy substantially increased during the reign of King Rama V. Notably, he led a 15-year project to construct numerous new warships and to expand Thailand’s naval forces. Expansion became the priority of Thailand’s naval military sector. Vice Admiral and Chief of Staff for the Royal Siamese Navy Phraia Rachawangsan developed Thailand’s next expansion plan in 1926, recommending the establishment of a Coastal Defense Division and Offensive Mobile Division. While the focus of the early Royal Thai Navy was primarily defensive, their forces were mobilized in World War II to support the efforts of the Italian Navy. Expansion of the Royal Thai Navy largely continued through the latter half of the 20th century. After the conclusion of World War II, Thailand notably expanded its fleet by purchasing surplus naval warfare materials from the United States and United Kingdom. From 1951 to 1956, the Royal Thai Navy completed a five-year modernization plan. The Royal Thai Navy was involved in a failed coup against Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram in 1951, and later supported South Vietnam with bombardments during the Vietnam War. How does the Royal Thai Navy fight maritime crime today? Since it was established, vigilantly fighting against maritime crimes like illegal fishing, piracy, and smuggling has been the mission of the Royal Thai Navy. This mission continues into the modern day. The most significant threat to Thailand’s maritime security is piracy. As a result, many of the most recent developments in Thailand’s naval strategy have been targeted to combat piracy. The Royal Thai Navy joined an international collaboration with the United Nations to combat pirate attacks against ships carrying Indochinese refugees in the 1970s. And as recently as 2015, the Royal Thai Navy joined the anti-piracy alliance Strait of Malacca Patrols. The Royal Thai Navy also takes a firm stance in combating illegal fishing. In 2022, the Royal Thai Navy seized two Vietnamese fishing boats that were illegally fishing just 120 nautical miles away from the shore of Songkhla province. This was just one of several illegal fishing incidents that led to arrests, with several dozen boats being intercepted and naval crews charged under the Fisheries Act across the course of the year. Another priority of the Royal Thai Navy is combating human trafficking. In 2013, the Royal Thai Navy completed intensive internal investigations to address the trafficking of Rohingya refugees into Malaysia, who were allegedly sold as indentured servants and slaves. This led to the prosecution of over 60 officials for human trafficking from 2015 to 2017. Another important component of Thailand’s naval strategy is fighting to reduce offshore drug smuggling. The Royal Thai Navy has made notable seizures of illegal drugs as recently as 2022, when a large shipment of ecstasy, ketamine, and methamphetamine was seized on the riverbank of the Mekong River. According to the Thai Royal Navy’s Captain Rakop Thewaprateep, Thailand continues to bolster its anti-smuggling measures in order to combat rising drug trafficking and illegal smuggling. Their efforts are further supported through international collaboration with countries like the United States, which provided over $30,000 of electronic equipment to the Royal Thai Government in 2020 in order to support the fight against marine drug trafficking. Future of the Royal Thai Navy The Royal Thai Navy has a bright future in protecting the interests of Thailand and its citizens. They continue to fight against human trafficking, drug smuggling, piracy, and illegal fishing due to their commitment to international collaboration with countries like the United States. It’s not just protecting international and domestic interests that makes up the entirety of their naval strategy, either. The Royal Thai Navy best communicates its dedication to the future of Thailand through its focus on the country’s ecology and marine wildlife. Through hosting organizations like the Sea Turtle Conversation Center of Ao Dong Tan and enforcing the law of the Fishery Act of 1947, the Royal Thai Navy ensures that Thai citizens will enjoy the fruit of their healthy and intact marine ecology for years to come. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
April 11, 2023News / Smuggling Of Illicit GoodsIn order to circumvent the economic sanctions affecting Russia, a shadow fleet has emerged. Its aim is simple : to continue trading hydrocarbons without being subject to sanctions. For this purpose, old ships are used to carry out illegal transshipments. Thus, the origin of the shipments is blurred and the financial manna earned is more important. Sanctions on the Russian economy Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the European Nations took measures to weaken Moscow. Exports have been mainly affected by sanctions aimed at weakening the Russian oil sector. EU intends to harm Russian economy. In June 2022, the Council of the European Union adopted a sixth set of sanctions that, among other things, prohibits the purchase, import or transfer of crude oil transported by sea and certain oil products from Russia to the EU. The only exception applies to European countries that cannot find viable alternatives. Nonetheless, these measures should have a real impact knowing that Russian exports reached 24 billions of euros in 2019. The restrictions apply progressively from the 5th December 2022 for crude oil and from February 5, 2023 for other refined petroleum products. Since most Russian oil delivered to the EU is transported by sea, these restrictions will cover nearly 90% of Russian oil imports to Europe by the end of 2022. This will significantly reduce Russia’s trade benefits. The motivations behind the development of Russian shadow fleet Recent media reports on January 2023 data reveal that federal budget Russian revenues from oil and gas taxes were down 54 % from December 2022 and 46 % from the same month in 2021. Russian oil is still transported by tankers covered by western insurance. This insurance is only available if the oil was purchased at a price below the cap. The price of oil from the Urals, Russia’s main export grade, has fallen to a level $30-40 per barrel below international benchmark crudes such as Brent. According to the Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA), Russia earns 560 millions euros a day from the export of fossil fuels. This 560 millions represent : 280 million euros from the sale of crude oil 160 million for oil products 60 million for natural gas via pipelines 60 million for coal 40 million for liquefied natural gas LNG sent by ship These amounts explain the creation of a shadow fleet. It allows Moscow to be less dependent to the Western countries and to bypass the embargo. Thus, there are several reasons for the use of illegal transshipment by Shadow fleet. First, it reduces the risk of sanctions for processing exports directly from Russian ports. Secondly, due to the length of the voyages, it is necessary to transship small cargoes to larger tankers. How is created the Shadow fleet ? The Shadow fleet is composed of old vessels of medium capacity. They could be divided in two categories. The first one is the black ships, long used by Iran and Venezuela to circumvent Western embargoes. They were mainly used to transport oil and petroleum products. The second category is about grey ships. Most of them were sold after the Russian invasion of Ukraine. They were sold by Europeans to companies from the Middle East and Asia without any experience in the oil market. Their main goal was to bypass the sanctions. Modernization obligations are pushing companies to put many seaworthy vessels on the second-hand market. This offers a wide range of ships in seaworthy condition to create a shadow fleet. In 2022, 29 VLCC “very large crude carriers” were purchase. There are each capable to carrying 2 million barrels of crude oil. In addition, Russia would acquire 31 Suezmax vessels of 1 million barrels each and 49 Aframax-sized vessels (700,000 barrels). The acquisition and ownership of these vessels is opaque. The buyers are anonymous and travel to Hong Kong and Dubai, Cyprus and Singapore to purchase tankers. The Sovcomflot (SCF) is accused of being linked to the Russian shadow fleet. SCF is subject to European sanctions for providing 70% of the oil transport in Russia’s interest. The company Sun Ship Management, which has acquired several vessels, is said to be a subsidiary of SCF. However, any connection is still denied by SCF. Today, the ghost fleet is estimated at between 400 and 600 vessels, or 10% of the world’s oil tankers. What is the shadow fleet role ? The term “shadow fleet” refers to old vessels that operate without an AIS (Automatic Identification System). AIS transmits a ship’s position so that other vessels are aware of its position. Without it, they can perform illegal ship-to-ship transshipments (STS). These transshipments make the origin of products opaque. Typically, two to three STS are performed to transfer Russian oil. These illegal transshipments take place around Ceuta, and more generally on the North African Mediterranean Coast. The number of vessels conducting STS activity in the Ceuta areas increased from 2 per month in May 2022 to 20 in January 2023. The Peloponnese region of Greece and South Korea are other locations where STS takes place. Most of the shipments are destined for countries in Africa and Asia. China has recorded a 19% increase in Russian oil imports in 2022 compared to 2021. India has recorded an 800% increase to 900,000 barrels per day in 2022. The dangers of the shadow fleet The shadow fleet is source of several hazards. The vessels used are old, about 15 years. They usually are retired by oil companies due to risk of wear and tear. They are now used in the shadow fleet to travel around the globe, carrying tons of fossil fuels. The story of the tanker Prestige is a paragon of possible disaster. The vessel broke up and its cargo leaked. No less than 50 000 tons of fuel oil spilled on the Spanish and Portuguese coasts. Finally, the use of a phantom fleet hinders the achievement of the primary function of the embargo. Russia is not as weakened as was hoped. The shadow fleets mitigate the impact of the sanctions and provide a financial income to Russia. Furthermore, the multiplication of embargoes can encourage the integration of a shadow fleet. Shadow economies become profitable and may lead to a decrease in white shipping revenues. Actions are starting to be taken From 21 to 26 March, IMO (the International Maritime Organization) focused on ship-to-ship oil transfers and “dark fleet” tankers. Countries such as Spain, Australia, the United States and Canada are participating in the IMO’s campaign to strengthen the monitoring of obscure oil trade activities that have emerged over the past year. They ring the alert about this practice. The risks of pollution for coastal states are significant. There are at high risk of incidents such as collisions. The Committee was informed that a fleet of older ships, including some not inspected recently, having substandard maintenance, unclear ownership and a severe lack of insurance, was currently operated as a ‘dark fleet’ or ‘shadow fleet’ to circumvent sanctions and high insurance costs. They alert about the increasing risk of oil spill or collision. Another meeting will take place from 27 November to 6 December 2023. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
April 5, 2023NewsA maritime wealth threatened Fishing is an essential activity for West Africa but is threatened by several elements. Pollution and over-fishing have taken their toll on the biodiversity of Senegalese waters. The species are less numerous, the fishing resources offer less yield. This decrease leads to a drop in income and a complication of living conditions. IUU fishing leads to the destruction of the biotope. Quotas and prohibitions are not respected. It results in the nullifying of attempts at sustainable fishing and development. Many foreign vessels come to lay their nets in areas that are forbidden to them. A sea-oriented society Senegalese waters are inhabited by pelagic fishes. The marine wealth of Senegal is its strength. The sub-sector of fishery was the first field of exportation in 2015. According to the ANSD, it represented approximately 80% of the income from international exports. Traditional fishery is employed by coastal communities. It has the particularity to produce an amount of fishing, comparable to industrial fishery. In 2019, artisanal fishing represented 3,2% of the Senegal’s GDP. In addition to the economic interest, fishing addresses to social stakes. Senegalese population gets three quarters of its animal protein from the marine ecosystem. But this balance is endangered by pollution. Pollution : the threat of eutrophication Pollution is one of the anthropological causes of the decrease of catches. For instance, the waste decomposes into microplastics and is then ingested by marine life. An other menace in the Senegalese waters is eutrophication. Eutrophication is defined by NOAA as a “chain reaction in the ecosystem, starting with an overabundance of algae and plants. The excess algae and plant matter eventually decompose, producing large amounts of carbon dioxide. This lowers the pH of seawater, a process known as ocean acidification. Acidification slows the growth of fish and shellfish and can prevent shell formation in bivalve mollusks. This leads to a reduced catch for commercial and recreational fisheries, meaning smaller harvests and more expensive seafood.” Eutrophication is caused by agricultural runoff, sewage and industrial discharges. It has been exacerbated by dams which reduce water flow to downstream regions. Eutrophication is linked to the proliferation of invasive plants and fish kills. The destruction of marine and coastal ecosystems will be caused by the future exploitation of hydrocarbons. Pollution will accelerate the aftermath of climate change. Visible and short-term effects have more impact. Sometimes at the expense of a global vision. In the hope of quickly alleviating pollution, the measures are not effective in the long term. In the past, fishery was sufficient to sell and consume its own catches. As early as 2000, the FAO, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reported on the over-exploitation of marine resources. A study conducted in 2014 by CRODT, the Oceanographic Research Center of Dakar-Thiaroye, reported an overcapacity of 51%. Today, there is therefore an increase in fishing, associated with a decrease in resources. This leads to lower income and more difficult living conditions. The absence of an alternative sector has forced the implementation of resourceful systems, including the withdrawal of children from school. The threat of unfair competition: IUU and intensive fishing In order to increase the volume of catches, traditional fishermen are modernizing their fish catching techniques. But some prefer to ignore the regulations. It is called IUU (Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated) fishing. IUU fishing leads to the destruction of the biotope. Quotas and prohibitions are not respected. It results in the nullifying of attempts at sustainable fishing and development. Chinese vessels, in search of squid or pelagic fish, are regularly accused of IUU fishing. Russian trawlers, such as Oleg Naydenov or the Vasiliy Filippov, illicitly enter MPAs to carry out illegal fishing. The Vasiliy was recently spotted in the MPA of Gorée. Greenpeace Africa has expressed concern about its presence in the EEZ of several countries. The absence of transparency of the Senegalese government in the allocation of fishing licenses is pointed out. This opacity is a source of concern and tension for local fishermen. The Group of Shipowners and Fishing Industry in Senegal, (GAIPES), denounced the plundering of Senegalese waters. This reaction followed the authorization of pelagic fishing granted by the Senegalese government to about 40 Russian vessels. No annual catch limit was set for them and the compensation was meager. In return, Russia has proposed to buy a ton of fish at 35$. They were fully aware that the species involved could sell for up to $150. Therefore, the loss would be significant given that the production amounts to 1,4 millions of tons. This trade has been criticized by Saër Seck, president of the GAIPES. In addition to the shortfall from this exchange, many have a lot to lose. Many fishermen lost their job due to the collapse of local fishing activity. They could not compete with giant factory ships. Moreover, those only unload their shipments abroad. Therefore, there are no direct benefits from their intensive fishing. Limited and ineffective controls IUU is facilitated by a lack of monitoring. Fishing licenses are not widespread. Boats are rarely registered and controls are infrequent. Thus, the illegal intrusion of fishermen into the MPA or EEZ is simplified. The amount of the fines remains very low. The penalties are not dissuasive and consequently ineffective Apart from intrusion and IUU fishing, the competition against industrial foreign fishing is tough. Chinese trawlers and Turkish seiners threaten Senegalese traditional fishery. Theirs catches, bountiful, endanger resources already over-exploited. MPAs, a co-managed solution In an attempt to mitigate the consequences, measures are set up. The creation of MPAs Marine Protected Areas is the solution chosen by the Senegalese government. It aims to preserve the diversity of halieutical resources and marine biotopes involving the communities. MPAs are the central element of the Senegalese actions to protect their marine wealth. A MPA is defined by the IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as “a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.”. It is recommend that each country protect at least 5% of their national coastal and marine areas. However, Senegal protects only 1,61% of its EEZ being 205 269 ha. Thus, under the supervision of the Ministry of the Environment and the Directorate of Community Marine Protected Areas (DAMCP), but also with the assistance of the DPM, Directorate of Maritime Fisheries and the DPSD, Directorate of Fisheries Protection and Surveillance, the first MPAs were created in Senegal in 2004. AFD, French Agency for Development took an active part in the establishment of MPA in the regions of Casamance and Sine-Saloum. It provided 5 million euros in funding and coordinated the project. It aims to achieve sustainable management by establishing biological rest periods. Fishing would be temporally prohibited in specific geographic areas in order to protect particular species. This marine fallow should enable for an increase in the size and quantity of the catches. A locally managed solution On the 18 areas protected, 11 are part of the West African Marine Protected Areas Network (RAMPAO). Their success come from the involvement of local communities in the management. MPAs are handled at local scale by local fishing committees: inter-professional economic interest groups, associations. Three main bodies manage the MPAs : The General Assembly, which brings together the fisheries services and the deconcentrated environmental services of the State, the socio-professional organizations of the riparian villages and the local institutions. The Executive Board, with a more operational management, includes 4 statutory members: the President, the Vice President, the Secretary General and the Treasurer. Six technical commissions : surveillance and sustainable fishing, technical and tourist development, management of the environment and natural resources, sensitization and training and finally conflict management. Nevertheless, MPAs face several challenges. The first is the concern for democratization of local committees. The second is the lack of respect for legal statutes. The third challenge is the improvement of administrative management. If these challenges are met, MPAs would become effective solutions. Bibliography Menaces sur les aires marines protégées en Afrique de l’Ouest : de la pêche non contrôlée aux changements climatiques Pierre Failler, Grégoire Touron-Gardic, Oumar Sadio, Marie-Suzanne Traore Dans Mondes en développement 2019/3 (n° 187), pages 133 à 152 El hadj Bara Deme, Pierre Failler et Grégoire Touron-Gardic, « La gouvernance des aires marines protégées au Sénégal : difficulté de la gestion participative et immobilisme des comités de gestion », VertigO – la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement , Volume 21 numéro 1 | mai 2021, mis en ligne le 17 mai 2021, consulté le 27 février 2023. El hadj Bara Deme, Daniel Ricard et Patrice Brehmer, « Dynamiques et mutations dans la gestion des pêcheries artisanales sénégalaises : de la gestion centralisée des ressources aux dynamiques participatives et durables », Norois , 252 | 2019, mis en ligne le 03 janvier 2022, consulté le 27 février 2023 URL : DAMCP : Contribute to national poverty reduction strategies through the institution of sustainable management of the marine space Mamadou THIOR & Michel DESSE, « Tension autour des Aires Marines Protégées (AMP), Levier de Gouvernance pour la gestion des ressources marines côtières en Casamance (Sénégal)», Revue Espaces Africains (En ligne), 2 | 2022 (Varia), Vol. 1, ISSN : 2957- 9279, mis en ligne, le 30 décembre 2022 URL : Adama Mbaye, Ndiaga Thiam et Massal Fall, « Les zones de pêche protégées au Sénégal : entre terroir du pêcheur et parcours du poisson. Quelle(s) échelle(s) de gestion ? », Développement durable et territoires , Vol. 9, n°1 | Mars 2018, mis en ligne le 30 mars 2018, consulté le 27 février 2023. URL : ; DOI : Sénégal : cogestion des pêcheries du poulpe et de la langouste royale, Comment les consommateurs, les entreprises et les autorités de l’UE peuvent-ils améliorer les conditions sociales, environnementales et économiques des pays en voie de développement, Rédigé et édité par WWF Espagne / José Peiro Crespo et Juan Vilata (consultants). Mai 2017 Conception de Marco Neves Ferreira Like this:Like Loading... [...]
April 4, 2023NewsWarship Seine, a design for environmental and military purposes The Seine is one of the 4 BSAM, Metropolitan Offshore Support and Assistance Vessels (BSAM : Batiment de soutien et d’assistance métropolitains) along with the Rhone, the Loire and the Garonne. Each one named after a French river. The Seine is 70 meter long and can reach a speed of 14 knots but is manned with only 17 crew members and officers. She is designed to perform several types of missions. The Seine is able to support the French Naval Forces (escorting Nuclear Attack submarines, towing, recovery of tactical weapons such as exercise torpedoes,…), carrying out police missions (fisheries policy, projection and intervention of special forces,…) or different types of support missions (anchoring and maintenance work, recovery of mooring buoy or shipwrecks, towing of equipment,…). But as Lieutenant Guillaume told us, « the missions of the Seine are not only military. The Seine contributes to public service missions, under the responsibility of the french Prefect of the Mediterranean Sea, based in Toulon.» And this apparently happens very often, the officer explains: « This summer, after the heavy storm on french Corsica on the 18th of August, we were ordered to join immediately the Corsican coast, to assist a sinking sailing ship. We managed to secure the ship and towed it to the Ile Rousse Harbour. All along the Corsican coastline, there was a huge amount of shipwrecks and debris, so that we spent a couple of days investigating the Corsican approaches and cleaning up the remaining debris that could have been a danger for navigation ». War against pollution French Navy is committed to protecting the seas. The POLMAR ” maritime pollution ” operation is one of its various missions and the most important. The Seine is able to deploy a giant floating pollution barrier to contain and collect marine pollution, particularly caused by hydrocarbons. The ship is also equipped with facilities to pump the hydrocarbons and store it on board. ” We train very often the deployment of all our anti-pollution assets, to be ready to intervene immediately in real case ” added Lieutenant Guillaume. With the permanently increasing human activity at sea, ” pollution in the Mediterranean Sea is one of the biggest challenge we have to face. Not only the French Navy, but all the different administrations of neighboring countries. “ Collaboration to preserve marine environment In order to develop international cooperation, France signed the Ramoge agreement in 1976. The Ramoge Agreement is an intergovernmental cooperation agreement between France, Italy and Monaco for the preservation of the marine environment. It is an instrument of multidisciplinary coordination involving territorial administrations, scientific institutions, and users of the sea in order to carry out joint actions in their fields of competence. In addition, France is committed to developing knowledge and specific skills around the Mediterranean sea. In February 2022, the Seine participated in a joint maritime pollution exercise with the Albanian Navy. ” The main objective of this exercise, based on a scenario developed by the Albanian authorities, was to coordinate the action of the many means involved, and to use common procedures to detect, contain and eradicate maritime pollution ” said Lieutenant Guillaume. From the 27 to 28 March 2023, the warship Seine took part in the “CedreBleu” operation alongside the Lebanese Navy. The role of the BSAM was to strengthen cooperation and share their expertise in fight against marine pollution. Thus they demonstrated the use of a harbor boom for marine pollution response and seaweed collection. Besides the development of multinational partnership in a common effort to fight maritime pollution, France is also promoting her specific national organization and her technical solutions. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 28, 2023NewsThe Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) has always had close ties with its neighbor, the Singapore Navy. Because these countries are relatively nearby geographically, they have formed a coalition, supporting each other in fighting maritime crimes. With close ties and operating in the same region, it is little wonder that these two forces have developed a similar naval strategy to surveil ocean traffic and battle criminality in their territorial waters. History of the Royal Malaysian Navy On April 28, 1934, the British government in Singapore had already formed the Straits Settlement Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (SSRNVR). This Reserve would later have close ties with the creation of the Malaysian Navy. After the Second World War, there existed only 600 personnel in the Malaysian Navy, which was disbanded in 1947. It was later revived on December 24, 1948, once the Malayan Emergency began, with communists rising against British rule. Shortly after that, the Malayan Naval Force (MNF) came into being on March 4, 1949, with its base in Woodlands, Singapore. Starting as the “MNF Barracks,” it was renamed HMS Malaya, and the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) was created. After the Federation of Malaya obtained its independence on August 31, 1957, a slow transfer of control began. This newly independent country later requested the British government to transfer the naval equipment to it, forming the new Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) on September 16, 1963. Royal Malaysian Navy collaborations, naval strategy and threats This Navy must develop regional and international collaborations to protect its primary Sea Lines of Communications (SLOCs). It must create these alliances to safeguard its waters from crimes on many levels and ward off threats to its well-being. Royal Malaysian Navy collaborations Malaysia is a part of the United Nations and the Commonwealth Nations. Because of these links, Malaysia’s naval forces have built a strong network with traditional allies, especially the U.S. 7th Fleet, the Australian Navy and the U.K. This country is also part of The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA), a collective of bilateral defense alliances. This FPDA agreement consists of various multi-lateral agreements between Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and the U.K. All of these countries are members of the Commonwealth. Besides collaboration with the West, the RMN actively builds and maintains close military and naval diplomacy ties with countries like China. Malaysia must strengthen amicable relations with this country due to China’s assertive presence in the South China Sea. The reason for this strategy is the insecurity in Southeast Asia arising from the Philippines, Vietnam, Brunei, and Malaysia due to China’s strong presence. Royal Malaysian Navy fights naval crimes The RMN actively engages in regular naval exercises with its allies. One of these arrangements is the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) initiative between it and the U.S. This naval exercise includes anti-submarine, surface, and air warfare training. It also focuses on defensive antiterrorism tactics and other activities to confirm cooperation. CARAT also reinforces the mutual country commitment to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) partners. These ASEAN partners highlight joint priorities like regional security and stability. The Australian Navy also arranges regular naval exercises with the RMN to maintain training and readiness to protect regional and international interests. Additionally, the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA), previously the Malaysia Coast Guard, works with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and Japan Coast Guard (JCG) for crime fighting and search and rescue operations. The Royal Malaysian Navy – threats and enemies The South China Sea (SCS) is a delicate territory in the Malaysian region, giving rise to security and economic threats should it become unstable. But the RMN reacts with similar aggression as China when protecting its territorial waters from Chinese aggression, unafraid to safeguard the region with naval power. Besides being fully prepared to safeguard its airspace and sea lanes of communication (SLOCs) in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the continental shelf between itself and its neighbors, the RMN also wards off other threats. These threats include piracy, smuggling, and illegal fishing that causes ecological marine damage. Instead of signing regional agreements such as the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy & Armed Robbery Against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP) and the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (the SUA Act), the RMN deals with these threats alone. It does so by sending naval units to control such events. The future of the Royal Malaysian Navy Future RMN plans are modernization. It intends to overhaul two frigates – the KD Lekiu and KD Jebat. Further naval strategies are to extend the lifespan of four of its corvettes in the Laksamana class by upgrading their sensors and weaponry. Other plans include purchasing two additional submarines to round off its fleet by 2040 to grow into a well-balanced maritime power that can protect its security and economic interests. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 24, 2023NewsThe Indonesian Navy had many names and underwent changes before establishing itself in its modern form. It achieved its current authority by establishing alliances to fulfill its defensive role. Its obligations today include protecting its waters, fighting maritime crimes like smuggling and illegal fishing, and safeguarding its marine ecology. History of the Indonesian Navy The Indonesian Navy (TNI AL) was created on August 22, 1945, after independence. However, some historians place this date as September 10, 1945, at the start of the Indonesian National Revolution. Whatever the case, the navy was first called Badan Keamanan Rakyat-Laut (BKR) or the Agency of the People’s Security Sea Service. Now, this Navy serves as the naval division of the National Armed Forces. The Chief of Staff heads this Navy, which has three primary fleets. These fleets include the Armada, the first fleet stationed in Jakarta. The second fleet is the Komando Armada II, stationed in Surabaya. Lastly, the third fleet is the Komando Armada III in Sorong. Additionally, the Indonesian Navy has the Military Sealift Command. The Indonesian Navy also controls the Marine Corps. All commissioned ships’ names begin with KRI, which refers to the Kapal Republik Indonesia or the Republic of Indonesia ship. KAL is an abbreviation for Kapal Angkatan Laut for a Navy ship made from fiberglass and smaller than 118 feet or 36 meters. Indonesian Navy collaborations, fighting crime, and threats The primary obligation of this Navy is to protect the country’s coastline. It maintains law and order by patrolling its territorial waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The Indonesian Navy must also defend many maritime interests, including islands in its region and oceanic threats. It forms international collaborations in the course of its defensive role. International collaboration Indonesia is increasing its diplomatic relationships with Iran and other Middle Eastern countries. Simultaneously, it builds on its regional ties and maintains traditional relations with countries in the European Union. The Navy is also working on strengthening its relationship with the U.S. Despite intermittent animosities between China and Indonesia, these countries face the same threats. As such, they must develop their defenses to protect mutual and individual interests. As part of its naval strategy, this Navy undergoes training exercises with the navies of other countries to prepare its personnel for any eventuality. How Indonesia fights naval crimes According to its law, Indonesia’s Navy must perform several duties to defend the country. Consequently, it fights crime by performing military operations and obligations. It enforces local, national, and international laws to protect its territorial waters and sea lane communications (SLOCs) from terrorism, and piracy, constantly surveilling traffic in its territory. In one case, the Navy has turned to farm seaweed to reduce piracy and recidivism. In the case of illegal fishing, the Indonesian Navy has resorted to blowing up boats. This Navy is also known for imprisoning people without permits when waiting in Indonesian waters on their way to Singapore. Indonesia’s Navy also engages in the empowerment of civilians to support its defenses. On a larger scale, this Navy develops its diplomatic ties and foreign policies in support of fighting crimes on the high seas and along its island territorial regions. This Navy will further perform other duties in pursuit of maintaining and developing its power as part of an overarching naval strategy to optimize its performance. Indonesian Navy threats and enemies Recent threats in Indonesian waters include those from China, which is placing pressure on Indonesia regarding disputed waters. Another international threat comes from Beijing, claiming that Indonesia is drilling for oil and gas in its sovereign waters near the Natuna Islands. Another threat is crime in territorial waters. But other threats include insufficient funding to build the Indonesian Armed Forces and Navy. Also, a further threat is present from insufficient definitions of security in the ASEAN region, and the local maritime conditions are not conducive to improving maritime power. These are just some of the threats and enemies the Navy deals with on a regular basis. Due to these circumstances, the Indonesian Navy should build on its regional and international diplomatic relationships Future of the Indonesian Navy In the medium to long term, this Navy’s future means procuring assets to enhance its defense capacities. Combat management systems (CMS) for rapid attack craft, aircraft for the Navy, and missile boats armed with Naval Strike Missile (NSM) capacity are just some of the Navy’s plans. This expansion also means new programs to build warships and acquire submarines and other equipment to strengthen the position of this naval power. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 15, 2023NewsThe Singapore Navy is much younger than other countries, yet it must still form international collaborations with them for support. Similarly, this Navy faces challenges like smuggling, human trafficking and similar crimes, which it must control through its naval strategy. Learn how this Navy faces threats and enemies and what the future holds for the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). History of the Singapore Navy The Republic of Singapore Navy’s history goes back to 1934, when it was first formed on April 20 and known as The Straits Settlement Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve. During the Second World War, it transformed into the Malayan Volunteer Reserve in 1941. In 1952 the Singapore government named it the Royal Malayan Navy, which transitioned into the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) when Singapore became an official Malayan state on September 16, 1963. Between 1963 and 1975, the RSN underwent many further changes, including transferring the volunteer reserve to the RMN, which was renamed the Singapore Volunteer Force (SVF). When Singapore gained independence in 1965 and became a part of the Commonwealth of Nations on August 9, the SVF was called the Singapore Naval Volunteer Force (SNVF) and had two wooden ships. The name changed again to the People’s Defense Force (Sea) in 1967, which fell under the authority of the Sea Defense Command (SDC). In 1968, the SCD became the Maritime Command (MC) and, finally, the RSN on April 1, 1975. Singapore Navy collaborations, fighting crime, and threats Like any other navy, the Singapore Navy has to fight off threats and combat crimes that threaten its marine ecology and sovereignty as a nation. To do this, the Navy forms international collaborations and alliances to protect its territorial waters. International collaboration The Indian Navy regularly hosts a multilateral naval exercise (MILAN) in which the RSN and over 40 other countries participate. Since beginning this training collaboration in 1995, Singapore has joined the exercises held biannually without fail. Another alliance is the Southeast Asia Cooperation and Training exercise (SEACAT), which focuses on maintaining a secure maritime region. It does this through regular training, search and seizure protocols, and using unmanned aerial systems to increase understanding of challenges. So, the Singapore Navy creates international and local alliances to protect its seaboard and trade routes. Singapore grants tenancy to the U.S. Coast Guard, Marine Inspection Detachment (MIDET), and the U.S. 7th Fleet uses the Sembawang base to exercise its Pacific and Southeast Asia operations. The RSN allows the Indian Navy to access this same port when escorting U.S. naval ships and patrol boats through the Malacca Straits. How Singapore fights naval crimes The Singaporean Navy works with its Indonesian and Malaysian neighbors to fight threats in its waters. Surveillance and patrolling occur jointly in the coastal waters around Singapore and the Malacca Strait. The Navy also enlists the help of maritime patrol aircraft from its air force to support its endeavors in fighting pirates in its waters and internationally. To achieve its joint goal of protecting its waters, the Navy has participated in the multinational Combined Task Force 151 off the Gulf of Aden. The RSN also engages in regular joint foreign exercises locally and abroad and constantly maintains a visible presence in its territorial waters to discourage threats. This country also participates in the Regional Plan of Action to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices. Additionally, Singapore subscribes to the illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing initiative to protect its resources. Singapore Navy threats and enemies The RSN is one of the busiest global sea lanes and must take precautions to protect its lucrative trade routes. In the process, the RSN faces threats like terrorism and piracy in the waters around Singapore and the Strait of Malacca. This country also faces illegal fishing that harms its natural resources and marine ecology. Yet another threat is drug smuggling and trafficking in the territorial waters around this country. Future of the Singpore Navy Because Singapore is so strategically located in terms of its sea lines of communication (SLOCs), it must make every effort to protest these assets. The country has made great strides by setting aside massive defense budgets to develop a “next-generation” military force by 2040. Besides investing in surface and subsurface vessels, the Navy has invested in advanced unmanned systems. It has also enhanced its regional network alliances to fight security issues with various modern ships. The Navy will continue developing its major bases in Changi and Tuas as the first line of defense to protect its people and economy. This defense concentrates on threats in the South China Sea and the Singapore and Malacca straits. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 7, 2023NewsWhen discussing naval strategies in India, it is necessary to address the Indian Navy’s international collaboration to support positive relationships on the ocean. Discussing the crimes, this Navy faces and how it combats these occurrences is essential. Moreover, all navies face other enemies and risks. Here, we discuss all these issues, starting with a brief history and ending with the future of this Navy. History of the Indian Navy After gaining its independence on August 15, 1947, authorities split the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) on April 22, 1958, retaining two-thirds of its assets and handing the remainder to the Royal Pakistan Navy. The first Flag Officer to command the RIN was Rear Admiral JTS Hall. The RINs first Chief of Naval Staff of the nave was Vice Admiral R D Katari. When the country gained independence on January 26, 1950, it became the Indian Navy. It adopted the Ashoka Lion Motif as its emblem and the motto, “Sam no Varunah” (be auspicious unto us Oh Varuna). The Navy also added the “Satyamev Jayate” inscription on the State Emblem as part of its crest. The country celebrated its first Navy Day on October 21, 1944. This date was later changed in 1972 to December 4. Navy Day celebrates the country’s war heroes from the Pakistani war in 1971, the missile attack on the Karachi harbor, and its successes in the Bay of Bengal in the Arabian Sea during World War II. Collaborations, Crime Fighting, and Threats Following the rich history of this Navy, the focus turns to modern-day activities. Indian Navy Collaborations Delhi agrees with the policy of Security and Growth for all in the Region (SAGAR) to protect its maritime interests. To achieve this goal, it divides the Indian Ocean into sections on its west, east and southern coasts. Its neighbors on its northern borders are China and Pakistan. Because China uses the Indian Ocean as a transport route and is a threat to India and most western countries, the Navy collaborates with multiple nations to protect joint interests. Consequently, the Navy has alliances such as the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), INDOPACOM, and the Colombo Security Conclave. It has formed collaborations or agreements of varying levels with: The U.S. The U.K. France Australia Bangladesh Sri Lanka Maldives Mauritius Seychelles Madagascar Comoros Japan Indian Ocean littorals and islands How this Navy Fights Maritimes Crimes The Indian Navy fights maritime crimes by enlisting the international community’s help. It also fights crimes by building its naval capabilities and creating collaborations such as the Information Fusion Centre-Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR) at Gurugram in 2007. This organization helps address crimes on the Indian Ocean and is a center of information and intelligence sharing. Another way that the Navy fights crimes is through the creation of laws. In 2022, India added a new “repression of piracy” section to its 2019 Anti-Maritime Piracy Bill. New suggestions address respect for international in fighting terrorism at sea. The new law also allows the Navy and Coast Guard to arrest terrorists and prosecute them domestically to protect vital sea-trade lanes in Indian waters and the vicinity. Threats and Enemies Following incursions into Ladakh in 2020 by the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, this country has proven that it is an enemy of India. Since this time, India has focused on developing its defensive resources. The country’s strategy has turned to building its equipment to face international threats, including strengthening its Navy and air force. Another threat the Indian Navy faces is insufficient funds to build its nautical resources. Its technology is aging, and a lack of planning has negatively impacted its capabilities. Other ongoing threats include human trafficking in the Indian Ocean, illegal fishing and its impact on marine ecology, and drug smuggling. The Future of the Indian Navy Operations With the constant threat of China on its doorstep, the Navy must adequately prepare to face this danger. To do so, it must focus on the modernization of its fleet. It is doing so through a naval strategy that has changed from buying equipment to building equipment. As this Navy continues to deal with local threats, it must strengthen its neighborhood and international ties. It can do so by reinforcing its military. The Navy is also focusing on strengthening its military fortifications in Lakshadweep in the west and the Nicobar and Andaman Islands to the east. The Navy must also bolster its northern protection network (the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal). This bolstering strategy will help develop a more robust network of island bases in the region and ultimately offer greater protection of its territories. To further boost its strategy, it should seek additional international partnerships and alliances with historic supporters. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
February 28, 2023NewsThe Royal Brunei Navy is a small but efficient fleet of vessels with a duty to defend its country from threats originating from in and around Brunei waters. As part of its naval strategy to safeguard its territory, it forms alliances with neighbors and international partners to boost its capabilities. In the process, this Navy combats crimes such as smuggling and illegal fishing, protecting its marine ecology in the process. History of the Royal Brunei Navy The Royal Brunei Navy (RBN) was formed on June 14, 1965, as a part of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. At first, it had three river patrol aluminum boats and was the Boat Section of the armed forces. As the country grew stronger economically, its name changed to the Boat Company. It then received its first fast patrol boat in 1968, which became its flagship. Three years later, the First Sea Battalion got two more coastal patrol vessels, having undergone a further name change. Officially Brunei’s term for its Navy was the First Sea Battalion, Royal Brunei Malay Regiment in Malay. In the Malayan language, this name was Angkatan Laut Pertama, Askar Melayu DiRaja Brunei (ALP AMDB). On October 1, 1991, the First Sea Battalion was called the Royal Brunei Navy. This new name followed its independence from British rule on January 1, 1984, and the growth of its armed forces. The RBN has its base in Muara. It is a small maritime force but has adequate vessels to support its search and rescue missions. Another primary responsibility of the RBN is to protect its country from sea-borne threats. Royal Brunei Navy collaborations, fighting crime, and threats Because Brunei is a small country, its Navy is also small, so it must form international cooperation to bolster its protective abilities. Although the RBNs primary purpose has been to patrol its shores, it must defend itself against various crimes on the high waters. To do so, it must develop specific strategic defenses. International collaboration Like the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN), the RBN organizes regional and international collaborative exercises and partnerships. The RBN engages in Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT), which involves divisions of the U.S. Navy, Armed Forces, and U.S. Coast Guard for the Pacific Area. Due to its links with the Commonwealth, Brunei conducts joint exercises and training with the Australian Navy. Members of the RBN also further their training in countries with which Brunei has friendly relations, including India, the U.K., U.S., Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, and Malaysia. Naval exercises and training with partners include underwater ops, night encounter exercises, mine clearance, various drills and other tactical exercises. Most of these maritime training events occur with the participating countries’ military, air forces and coast guards. How The Royal Brunei Navy fights naval crimes The Brunei Navy’s primary roles include defending and deterring attacks from the sea. These attacks may include piracy, terrorism, drug or human trafficking, or other crimes. Another of the Navy’s roles is safeguarding its marine resources, its sea lines of communication (SLOC) and conducting surveillance of its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Beyond crime fighting, this naval force conducts search and rescue ops. Its other duties include supporting the Brunei air force, military, security agencies, and other ministries when mandated to do so. Royal Brunei Navy threats and enemies Brunei faces threats and enemies in several guises, including disagreements on the high seas, territorial maritime disputes, and crimes between countries. This country also faces illegal activities like traffic and smuggling. According to the RBN, the best way to deal with these threats is to face them head-on. One way to do this is through joint enforcement initiatives. Coordinated law enforcement involves working with other task forces, such as the police reserve unit, the armed forces, and the customs and excise division. Another naval strategy is to ensure understanding between the personnel of the RBN and its ASEAN partners. Understanding the diverse cultures and working together will strengthen each other’s efforts in dealing with threats on the waterways. Future of the Royal Brunei Navy Future plans for the RBN include acquiring a new patrol vessel, Fearless-class. It also has plans to purchase the Fearless-class patrol vessels that the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) intends retiring in the future. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
February 22, 2023NewsThe Syrian channel is the maritime area between Cyprus and the Middle East, off the Syrian, Lebanese and Israeli coasts. Since the 2014 Crimea crisis, there have been numerous media reports about Russian military activity, including live-fire events, in the foreign Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) and international airspace first in the Black sea and second within this area. The Syrian channel is close to several areas of tension or conflict (Operation Inherent Resolve in Irak and Syria, Situation in Syria, between Israel and Palestine, occupation of the northern part of Cyprus, no Peace treaty between Lebanon and Israel). It explains why NATO and non-NATO navies used to sail and/or to flight within this area. Even if a large part of the Syrian channel is under the legal regime of freedom of navigation and overflight, Russia seems to undertake specific aerial and naval activities in order to constraint maneuvers of NATO navies. Military uses of maritime spaces and international airspace Since the signature of the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS) in 1982, the legal regime regarding the use of maritime spaces and airspaces for military purposes is clear. In Economic exclusive zones (EEZ), all States enjoy the freedoms referred to in article 87 of navigation and overflight (article 58 UNCLOS).  This means that for military aircrafts and warships, there is no difference between high seas and EEZ. They may conduct military exercises and training. Through territorial seas, the rule is that a warship should enjoy the right of innocent passage. This passage shall be continuous and expeditious and should not to be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State : no threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of the coastal State, no exercise or practice with weapons, no collection of information, no launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft or military device, etc. Coastal States do not have to require prior notification or authorization for warships to enter territorial sea.Even if the Syrian channel is not so large, there is enough international airspace to fly and EEZ to sail freely. Military exercises may be conducted in that zone.  Freedom of navigation/overflight and safety In territorial waters, the right of innocent passage invoked by warships could also be suspended temporarily in specified areas by the coastal State “if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security, including weapons exercises” (article 25, UNCLOS). The suspension would have to be duly published by the coastal State.  If warships and military aircrafts may use freely EEZ, high seas and international airspace, it seems normal to develop procedures of safety in order to avoid maritime and aerial incidents. For the airspace, annex 15 of the Chicago convention on international civil aviation defines a tool called “notice to airmen” (NOTAM). A NOTAM is “a notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations”. A NOTAM is used to share information for safety reasons and for the time of the use of the airspace. For military purposes, it is important to inform civil aviation and other armed forces that such area of the airspace and at such altitude is needed for missile strike or air/air exercise. For safety reasons, the International maritime organization has decided in 1991 to adopt on 6 November 1991 the Resolution A.706(17) regarding the world-wide navigational warning service. Due to this resolution, geographical sea areas (NAVAREA) are established in order to coordinate the transmission of radio navigational warnings. In such an area, these navigational warnings are broadcasted messages containing urgent information relevant to safe navigation, including information concerning special operations which might affect the safety of shipping, e.g. naval exercises, missile firings, etc. This kind of warning have to remain in force until the event is completed. For each NAVAREA, a country is designated to broadcast these safety messages. The Syrian channel is within the NAVAREA III area coordinated by Spain.  After many incidents involving Russian and US warships or aircrafts in the 1960s and 1970s, the USA and the USSR prompted further discussions on a mechanism to better manage bilateral military relations. In order to avoid an escalation and the possibility that either side could resort to the use of force, negotiations led to the creation of the US-Soviet 1972 Incidents at sea (INCSEA) agreement. Twelve NATO Allies (including United Kingdom, France, Greece) have now an INCSEA Agreement with Russia. Key elements of these documents are exercising military professionalism by avoiding the risk of collision, keeping safe distance and speed and restricting operations in areas with heavy naval traffic. INCSEAs introduced methods for communicating intentions. Abuse of safety warnings? Despite the creation of these different tools, a significant increase of maritime and aerial incidents between NATO and Russian assets have been observed since the annexation of Crimea in 2014, especially in the Black sea and Mediterranean. Russia seems to use and abuse of the aforementioned tools. Within the Syrian Channel, there is a quasi-permanent NAVAREA III warning. It was especially the case in February 2022. From 1st to 28 February two NAVAREA messages (0047/22 and 0057/22 Eastern Mediterranean Sea) were in force for firing exercises in the major part of the Syrian channel at a time the Russian was preparing the invasion in Ukraine. It is the same with NOTAM. From 1st to 28 February 2023, Russia noticed that within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of Nicosia, numerous NOTAM were issued for navy firing exercises and missile, gun or rocket firing with the establishment of a lateral and vertical buffer zone.Even if NOTAM or NAVAREA warnings are only a source of information for airmen and seafarers for safety purpose, they have the effect of constraining aircraft and ship maneuvers. There is no possibility to control the effectiveness of this kind of “booking”. Indeed, it is not certain that Russian units were conducting firing exercises during 28 days off Cyprus coast. However the message sent to NATO units is that if they enter a buffer zone or an area covered by NOTAM and/or a NAVAREA warning, it could be considered as an hostile intent or an hostile act by Russian units. Despite INCSEAs agreements, there are often reports of near-collision or short-notice avoidance actions linked with Russian warships or military aircrafts. Considering it happens often and within several seas (Baltic Sea, North Sea before 24 February 2022, Mediterranean), correlated to NOTAM/NAVAREA actions, Russia seems to abuse these safety tools in order to “occupy” or “territorialize” the Syrian channel close to its military interests in Syria. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
February 2, 2023NewsConcealment and deception are a common temptation for warships. Despite possibilities existing in times of war as in times of peace, the legal framework is clear about the notion of warship and room of maneuver offered to the navies. However, some States try to play with the rules, especially due to new technologies (spoofing AIS; nameless, flagless and numberless warships; use of Unmanned aerial vehicles, etc.). In an era where major maritime powers are developing wide-area oceanic surveillance and reconnaissance networks, it seems normal that navies try to develop strategical and tactical maritime deception and concealment doctrines both for peace and for wartime. In case of armed conflict at sea, surprise would be a decisive factor in combat. Some strategic competitors could have the temptation to develop concealment tactics not necessarily in preparation of the worst-case scenario, but also in order to conduct hybrid warfare actions (below the conflictuality threshold). Even if this is not new, several attempts have been observed in the last few years to develop concealment and deception tactics, as a protection from observation or surveillance, or in order to conduct hybrid operations. The issue is whether or not these endeavors are lawful. Notion of warship In times of war and in times of peace, the legal definition of a warship is important. Depending on the qualification used, ships could in one hand benefit of certain immunities and exemptions, but in the other hand, be targeted by enemy fleets. Since the signature of the 1907 Hague convention relating to the Conversion of Merchant Ships into Warships, it appears that warships could be defined by four criteria: the ship is placed under the direct authority, immediate control and responsibility of the Power whose flag she flies; she bears the external marks which associates the warship with her nationality; the commander must be at the service of the State and duly commissioned by the competent authority (the name figure on the list of the officers of the fighting fleet); and the crew must be subject to military discipline. The 1958 Geneva convention on the High Seas confirmed this definition as the 1982 United Nations Convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS). The term warship means : a ship belonging to the armed forces of a State; bearing the external marks distinguishing such ships of its nationality; under the command of an officer duly commissioned by the government of the State and whose name appears in the appropriate service list or its equivalent; and manned by a crew which is under regular armed forces discipline. Painting the hull numbers and names of warships One on the latest examples of the attempt to be more discreet can be observed in the Russian navy since March 2022 as its begun to paint out the hull numbers and names of its warships. It removes the vessels’ flags, leaving no markings of nationality. The hull remains grey, so these vessels still seem to be warships. This is common practice for the Russian navy in the Black sea, when they wants to deny the loss of a ship if the Ukrainian armed forces sink one of these nameless, numberless and flagless vessels. This stratagem has been used by the Russian navy when the Ukrainian armed forces claimed the burning of the Vasiliy Bykov in March 2022. This strategy could appear interesting in times of peace and in times of war. However, as stated above, a warship must be clearly identified. This behavior is clearly unlawful as a warship has to bear the external marks associated to its nationality according to the article 29 of UNCLOS. To paint over the hull numbers and names of warships is not a problem per se if there is no doubt about the nationality. During wartime, it is commonly accepted that a warship can use a false flag, as it was the case in March 1942 during the Chariot operation off of St Nazaire (France). The HMS Campeltown used the German flag during the deception operation to approach the harbor and when she was sufficiently close to the port, the German flag was lowered and the Union Jack was raised. Therefore, if a Russian warship without markings of its nationality conducts an attack against Ukrainian objectives, it should be considered as an act of perfidy (unlawful and considered as a war crime) and not as a ruse of war (as it was the case for the HMS Campeltown). Confusion about the status of warships Be defined as a warship offers the possibility to invoke sovereign immunities when another State or judicial system tries to seize it. The International tribunal of the law of the sea ruled in the Ara Libertad case, thanks to the article 29 of UNCLOS, that a Navy training vessel was to be considered as a warship if she met all the criteria of the definition. In the end, the Ghanaian judge charge of the case had not been entitled to seize the warship. The Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy has the tendency to use a stratagem of confusion regarding the status of certain ships. One of the most recent examples is the port visit of the Yuan Wang 5 in Sri Lanka in August 2022. The ship seems to belong to the Chinese navy fleet, and Chinese authorities are still struggling to make believe that the Yuan Wang 5 is not a warship (and more precisely a spy ship) but a research and survey vessel. The one is not inconsistent with the second. Another source of confusion is the use of maritime militia: the People’s Armed Forces Maritime Militia, within the South China Sea’s contested waters. Chinese authorities support and train fishing vessels (sometimes called “little blue men”) in order to target anyone who challenges China’s claims, or who tries to seize territory in the South China Sea. These ships are part of the projection plan of China and are responsible for a number of incidents with fishermen, coast guards and ships of other countries. China maintains the confusion regarding the status of these ships. Since 2021, China passed a cybersecurity and data privacy law that permits a huge number of Chinese vessels operating within the China Sea to disappear from global tracking systems and especially the automatic identification system (AIS – the global standard for tracking and identifying ships at sea). The AIS is mandatory for most ships due to the SOLAS (Safety of life at sea) Convention but it is permitted for States to exempt certain ships from carrying an AIS. If AIS is not mandatory for warships (they can use it for safety issues in specific areas), fishing vessels have more commonly used AIS. With this law, Chinese authorities increase risks for safe navigation and show an exponential interest for the use of AIS in order to conceal its military activities. The use or the misuse of AIS As mentioned above, warships do not have to use AIS (Rules 1, chapter V of the SOLAS Convention). However, it is commonly used for safety reasons within shallow waters, straits, traffic separation scheme, etc. Several navies have the capacity to spoof AIS information, indeed, it could be useful to undertake deception operations in wartimes, but it could also provoke safety and security issues. Close to Russian waters, it has often been observed that the position of foreign warships have been spoofed in order to convince public opinion that a ship is breaching the right of innocent passage within the Russian territorial waters. This was the case with the HMS Defender in 2021 in Black sea off the Crimean coastline. Using the AIS spoofing could be interesting to conceal one’s position or scheme of maneuver, but there are several limits: in certain zones (territorial seas of another country, international straits for example), in case one is conducting an internationally recognized wrongful act. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) As there is an increase of investments in order to equip warships with UAV, a new topic could occur during next years. UAV offer the possibility to conduct actions not immediately attributable to a navy: intelligence gathering, maneuvers hindering, etc. However, rules exist for these ever since the Cold war, especially for certain countries such as Russia. The USSR signed an agreement with the main maritime States concerning the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (USA, France, Canada, etc.). These agreements called INCSEA are still in force and engage Russia with these countries. According to the Chicago convention on civil aviation and to INCSEA, it is commonly accepted that an UAV is considered as an aircraft. The INCSEA details many rules, for example, related to the protection of ships engaged in launching or landing aircraft, as well as ships engaged in replenishment underway. The flight of an UAV in the vicinity of a ship conducting operations could easily be considered as an internationally recognized wrongful act engaging the State’s liability. In the game of war States may play with many tools to get the upper hand. The existing law keeps the balance between what is necessary and what is not, both in time of peace and in time of war. There is enough leeway for States to conceive maneuvers of deception but also defined lines to preserve safe navigation for every ship. Nonetheless some countries keep on flirting with those, threatening global security. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
January 18, 2023NewsEven if Indians have always had a unique vision of their role in the Indian Ocean and since a few years, in Pacific ocean as well, it is only recently that the Indian authorities have decided to develop a maritime strategy for the indo-pacific region on all its aspects: naval presence, maritime safety and security, blue economy. In order to implement this strategy, India has developed an original method, the alliance between the use of a maritime multilateralism through several fora or regional organizations, and a legal strategy in order to strengthen the cooperation. Indians have always had a unique vision of the Indian Ocean and they believe that there is a special link between this ocean and India. As a paradox, they were focused on continental issues for decades due to major geopolitical factors that are the borders with China, Pakistan and Bangladesh. However, things have changed since a few years. Several factors can explain the recent change of mind-set and the evolution toward a better consideration of maritime issues. The first point is that India saw the increase of navy deployments within the Indian Ocean: counter piracy operations, naval deployments due to terrorist threats or the fight against drugs dealing, etc.. Secondly, India may have the feeling of a Chinese containment policy within the Indian Ocean. The fact that terrorists came from the sea during Mumbai terror attacks in 2008 probably played a major role. A maritime strategy for the indo-pacific region India began to develop a strong maritime strategy within the last decade with several main objectives. The first aim was to protect its maritime approach. Now, the ambition is more to grant freedoms of navigation within the Indian Ocean (including major chokepoint: Malacca strait, Ormuz Strait, Mozambique Channel or Bab el Mandeb). The Indian ambition seems to be the development of peace within the Indian Ocean with a growing Indian influence without a too strong presence of the major western countries, and in opposition of the more aggressive Chinese strategy which has the ambition to control international sea-lanes. This strategy is now integrated to a larger geographical area and it involves several major partnerships. Since the Japanese Prime minister Shinzo Abe delivered a speech in 2007 to the India’s Parliament about “the confluence of two seas”, the Indian strategy found a new development with the Indo-Pacific concept. It has conducted new developments with the 2015 Indian maritime strategy called Ensuring Secure seas. In 2018, Narendra Modi developed his positive vision for the Indo-Pacific region as a free, open and inclusive region. One of his point was to express his belief that the common prosperity and security requires a common rules-based order for the region. The program is clear : to “have equal access, as a right under the international law, to the use of common spaces on the sea and in the air that would require freedom of navigation, unimpeded commerce and peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with international law”. Hard not to compare with the Chinese behaviour in the China Sea. A maritime strategy have always had several pillars: a naval strategy using navy assets, a strategy for maritime security and safety (generally using maritime administrations and coast guards) and a blue growth strategy. No matter what the pillar is, the Indian model is to use two things: maritime multilateralism as an expression of the Indian soft power, and the strengthening of the legal framework for bilateral cooperation. A maritime multilateralism Since the beginning of the Indian maritime investment, India decided to involve many partners and seems to have developed several relationship circles. Several neighbouring coastal States are part of a first circle. For example, India, Sri Lanka, The Maldives and Mauritius are members of the Colombo Security Conclave (Bangladesh and Seychelles are observers), a maritime security grouping that decided to enhance and strengthen regional security especially in the maritime safety and security domain. The second circle is larger and involve several countries of the Indo-Pacific area. One key element of the Indian maritime multilateralism is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) that Narendra Modi consider as central to the future of Indo-pacific region. To enable the Indian Maritime multilateralism, the second circle use different tools. Indeed, India developed two fora for maritime issues. The first one is the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) created in 1997 in order to create Indian Ocean connexions, to develop economical and scientific cooperation or common maritime search and rescue operations. The second one is the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) created in 2008 as a first step for regional maritime safety and security architecture. This forum seeks to increase maritime cooperation among navies of the littoral States of the Indian Ocean Region. It serves to develop an effective response mechanism and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) against natural disasters. All the members are coastal States of the Indo-Pacific region, including Australia, South Africa or France (due to the island of La Réunion). Other fora or regional organizations could be mentioned to highlight the Indian maritime multilateralism strategy. Western States (except France) are often not part of this Maritime multilateralism, but India has been trying to promote a shared vision of the lndo-Pacific area with Japan and USA since a few years, especially with the Asia-Africa growth corridor. The aim is to enhance the link between Africa and Asia through a free and open area. It appears to be more inclusive than the Chinese Belt and Road initiative with the aim to bring economic development in Africa and growing economic exchanges between Asia and Africa through the Indian Ocean. On the military domain, the Quad (Quadrilateral Security Dialogue) is an informal alliance between India, US, Australia and Japan whose one of the main aim is to collaborate on maritime security. A legal strategy to support the maritime strategy Even if the maritime multilateralism is an expression of the Indian soft power, India has to develop and strengthen its partnerships. A legal framework has to be implemented in order to strengthen bilateral relationships in a context of Chinese expansion. Several defense cooperation agreements have been signed with major partners. This is the case with France since 2006. Since 25 years, Indian and French navies promote together a strong military cooperation especially with common exercises like Varuna (40th edition in 2023). One major step for navies is to be able to be supported everywhere. That is why India tries to conclude bilateral agreements or arrangements concerning mutual cooperation logistics and services support. It have been done with Singapore, which have a central position in Asia, or with France since 2018. Since a few years, an Indian aircraft is regularly sent to La Réunion for surveillance missions above the Mozambique Channel. India seeks to comfort its strategic military bases. It tried to negotiate an agreement with Seychelles for the use of Assomption Island in order to establish a military base. Several bilateral cooperation agreements have been signed with Sri Lanka, Maldives, Seychelles, or Mauritius with the aim to share intelligence and data about maritime surveillance. Regarding maritime surveillance by satellites, an agreement has been signed with France in 2008. However, on certain matters, especially regarding the blue economy, India prefers to sign soft law tools or non-binding texts. This is the case with the Memorandum of understanding signed with Mauritius or the one signed with Bangladesh in 2015. France and India have approved an interesting roadmap in February of 2022 regarding ocean governance and blue economy. The shared wish is to act together in accordance with international law (United Nations convention for the law of the sea, Paris agreement on climate, convention on biological diversity, etc.) and to coordinate themselves in order to defend common opinions within the international organizations. By using maritime multilateralism and a bilateral legal strategy, India seems to have found a way to develop its idea of a peaceful, safe, and rules-based order in Indo-Pacific region while extending or developing its influence to face the Chinese threat. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
December 21, 2022NewsThe visit to Taiwan by the Speaker of the United States (US) House of representatives Nancy Pelosi on 2nd August 2022 led to a strong reaction from China, which organised major military exercises in the Taiwan Strait throughout August. China has long criticised the passage of warships from countries such as the US, the United Kingdom, France, Australia and Canada through the Strait. In the light of recent events, it seems worthwhile to take stock of the characteristics of the Taiwan Strait from the perspective of the international law of the sea. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) distinguishes between several categories of straits. The Taiwan Strait comes under Article 36 of the Convention because it fulfils the criteria of this article: on the one hand, it is a strait used for international navigation, as it is an important maritime route for world trade. On the other hand, the Taiwan Strait includes a route through an exclusive economic zone (EEZ), due to its breadth (70nm at the widest point). Therefore, Article 36 specifies that the regime applying to this route falls under the provisions applicable to the EEZ. UNCLOS grants rights to all States in the EEZ, and specifically freedom of navigation and overflight. Article 58 specifies that the foreign vessel enjoys free navigation “with due regard to the rights and duties of the coastal State”. The Convention lists exhaustively the rights of the coastal State in the EEZ; they have sovereign rights over the exploration, exploitation, conservation and management of resources. It is thus clear that the passage of warships through the Taiwan Strait does not affect the rights of the coastal State. Article 58 further stipulates that States must abide to the laws and regulations adopted by the coastal State, and these laws must comply with the provisions of the Convention and international law. Therefore, the coastal State can only adopt laws to regulate the navigation of foreign ships, for example by establishing shipping lanes, but it cannot justify the adoption of rules that prohibit or restrict the passage, because it would exceed its powers. China’s interpretation of UNCLOS at odds with U.S and rest of the world China, however, does not conform to this interpretation of UNCLOS and maintains a confusion in order to claim maximum control over the Taiwan Strait. Some Chinese media close to the government mention a right of innocent passage through the EEZ, which has no existence in the Convention. Moreover, the Chinese authorities regularly complain about provocations by foreign nations, mainly the United States, when they transit their warships through the Strait by a freedom of navigation operation. The freedom of navigation that prevails in the EEZ allows for this passage, and the qualification of “provocation” has no credible legal basis, besides the fact that only China can decide what is provocative to it. Furthermore, the practices of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) vessels are at odds with Beijing’s stance on the Taiwan Strait. The Chinese Navy indeed sent warships into foreign EEZs. During several US-led RIMPAC exercises, uninvited PLA vessels have been detected in the US EEZ, presumably in the process of gathering intelligence . In another case, a Chinese warship sailed along the coast of Australia through the EEZ, approaching Australian military bases in the area . These activities fall within the scope of Article 58 and freedom of navigation and are not contrary to UNCLOS. However, they do not correspond to China’s own position regarding the Taiwan Strait, which should therefore be considered as an international strait subject to the sovereignty of coastal States in the parts constituting territorial sea and freedom of navigation in the parts constituting an EEZ. Like this:Like Loading... [...]
September 5, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 26 Aug – 31 Aug 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
September 5, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 19 – 25 Aug 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
September 5, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 12 – 18 Aug 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
September 5, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 05 – 11 Aug 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
September 5, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 29 Jul – 04 Aug 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
September 5, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 22 – 28 Jul 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
August 2, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 15 – 21 Jul 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
July 20, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 08 – 14 Jul 23.Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
July 11, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 01 – 07 Jul 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
July 11, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 24 – 30 Jun 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 26, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 17 – 23 Jun 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 26, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 10 – 16 Jun 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 12, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 02 – 09 Jun 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 5, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 27 May -01 June 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
June 5, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 20 -26 May 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
May 22, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 13 – 19 May 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
May 22, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 06 – 12 May 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
May 10, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 29 Apr – 05 May 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
May 3, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 22 – 28 Apr 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
April 24, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 15 – 21 Apr 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
April 24, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 08 – 14 Apr 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
April 24, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 01 – 06 Apr 23-1Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
April 3, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 25 – 31 Mar 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 28, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. IFC Weekly Report 18 – 24 Mar 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 20, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 11 – 17 Mar 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 15, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 04 – 10 Mar 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 6, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 25 Feb – 03 Mar 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
March 3, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. IFC Weekly Report 18 – 24 Feb 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
February 23, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 11 – 17 Feb 23Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]
February 23, 2023ReportEstablished on 27 April 2009, the Information Fusion Centre (IFC) is a regional Maritime Security (MARSEC) center hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN). The IFC aims to facilitate information sharing and collaboration between its partners to enhance MARSEC in southeast Asia. Southeast Asia – IFC Weekly Report 04 Feb – 10 Feb 2023Télécharger Like this:Like Loading... [...]